Two Way Radios – Remain Linked … Generally

Being linked is the search phrase of nowadays&#39s residing design and style. It is incredibly vital to keep in contact with your relatives, friends and workers. The existing working day busy lifestyles do not give persons the time to be in constant touch with their households and inquire about their very well-staying. In these types of a circumstance, two way radios are the perfect devices that can address a relatives&#39s connectivity woes.

The thought of two way radios is not very new. They are gadgets that can receive as well as transmit information. They have been an integral and essential conversation system in the protection set up, like the army, navy and air force, considering the fact that a incredibly extended time. A great deal in advance of the introduction of the pager and the cellular telephone, the walkie talkie, as it is commonly acknowledged, was one of the initially gizmos that functioned on wi-fi technological know-how.

Due to the fact, in most circumstances, both mom and dad are pursuing a whole time qualified profession, it is critical to preserve a monitor of the actions and whereabouts of the little ones from the place of work alone. Two way radios have gradually and slowly emerged as the most trustworthy gadget that can assistance parents continue to keep a protecting and watchful eye more than their small children. They are also immensely handy in scenario there is an unwell relative who may possibly demand health-related attention at any issue of time.

These radios are incredibly easy products and uncomplicated and uncomplicated to use as very well. Some are so easy that they can be utilised very easily by little ones. Typically, two way radios appear with a push button procedure, which is generally utilised to activate the transmitter so that discussion can be built probable. A person quite critical fact that has to be held in brain is that in buy to create relationship, the frequency of two walkie talkies must match.

Two way radios are less expensive than mobiles, considering the fact that a single does not have to fork out for every conversation. The other benefit is that they are now offered in sleeker styles and far better options. The price also falls in the simply very affordable array with a lot of companies key cell companies have started establishing these devices due to their increasing attractiveness and utility.



Source by Dennis Jaylon

Evidence Technician Profession Recommendations

Proof technicians are generally regarded as one of the principal pillars of the US justice technique. They deliver support for regulation enforcement officers and forensic researchers in processing the proof from crime scenes.

Their most important job is to acquire, recognize, sign up and file physical proof systematically in these types of a way that it can be retrieved or referenced later on for use as a courtroom exhibit or in supporting police cases. Owing to their specialized know-how, evidence experts are normally involved in crime scene investigation technique instruction for legislation enforcement officers and non-public investigators.

As component of their day to working day duties, evidence technicians will be envisioned to accompany regulation enforcement officers to a criminal offense scene where they will make use of their expertise to process the proof and acquire studies for their superiors and legislation enforcement groups.

This is a demanding and relatively large anxiety position that calls for just one to be in good actual physical condition for the reason that they will be expected to stand, bend or stoop for extended intervals. The sensitivity and urgency of evidence selection also usually means that proof collection can not wait and they must often get the job done underneath tricky temperature disorders.

An proof technician’s work is not only physically exerting but mentally demanding as very well. One particular have to be conversant with the most recent scientific approaches and technical strategies of managing criminal offense scenes.

This signifies a truthful quantity of time have to be spent on person analysis, attending forensic seminars and being familiar with new proof assortment and analysis gadgets and software program.

Since the proof tech is deemed the in dwelling qualified on proof gathering and investigation and will be anticipated to coach new personnel, they must familiarize by themselves with crime scene investigation processes and policies.

Proof tech’s have to make absolutely sure that they generally have an ample stock of the supplies they need to have to approach criminal offense scenes. Hold off in processing evidence can have critical repercussions on proving the culpability or innocence of a suspect to a crime. They will have to consequently sustain restricted checking on provide amounts and call the worried sellers early sufficient and way ahead of the inventory runs out.

If you intend to be an proof technician, the fundamental specifications are a least of a GED certificate or significant university Diploma coupled with a legal justice certification or associate degree. Most criminal justice degree or certificate plans will present courses that cover the selection and processing of evidence which include cataloging, labeling and reporting.

For the certificate, the training course should usually run for two semesters during which the pupils will be educated on criminology, social and legal conduct, the United States authorized system together with standard prison regulation and the juvenile criminal technique.

An affiliate diploma goes deeper and broader than the certificate and incorporates modules on regulation enforcement management, proof and court strategies as well as the pertinent sections of the constitution that go over proof management.

Other than the educational qualification, the proof technician ought to also go to workshops and seminars where they can polish up on their abilities and capture up with recent developments.

This is a occupation truly worth looking into. You have to have to obtain more facts if you are interested. There are on the internet web-sites that can enable you attain this. Why wait any more time?

Note: Please come to feel no cost to reprint or republish this article. The only need is that the links be are living backlinks.



Source by Kenneth Echie

BFSI Organization Mobility – Problems and Important Options

Troubles:

1. Technological Issues: These are the worries in addressing and bringing collectively diverse cell platforms, networks, units, and working techniques. BFSI details is a person of the most delicate and vulnerable of most kinds of enterprise data. Encryption, scalability and safety factors need to have to be tackled correctly.

2. Business Issues: These are the political, regulatory and economic components that can impact the BFSI organization procedure across numerous degrees. With these issues there is no one particular option that fits all. Each of these variables require in depth investigation and redress. Involved in this are enterprise concerns linked to opponents, stakeholders and consumer acceptance.

Essential Options:

1. Inclusion of heterogeneous Infrastructure: Heterogeneity in cell products is right here to keep. This requirements to be accepted by BFSI organizations at the preliminary ranges. Inclusion of various technologies and devices should be employed as energy and this toughness will have to be leveraged efficiently. This has very long phrase positive aspects in terms of cost conserving, usability and accessibility as very well as gives the independence to the stake holders to opt for their devices. BFSI mobility infrastructure should be designed to correctly consist of these various techniques, technologies and cell working programs these kinds of as Symbian, Palm, BlackBerry, iOS, Android, Windows Mobile and other Linux variants.

2. Convey Your Possess Machine (BYOD): The stakeholders particularly the staff desire to have their alternative of equipment. By permitting the workforce to pick their equipment and facilitating the use of such units for company operations can be vastly effective to the BFSI corporation in the long run. A solitary, unified and simplified gadget for BFSI business function and conversation (official and particular) would make improved business enterprise sense. This alternative is not only price tag-powerful but also lessens instruction wants for new gadgets and instantaneously improves productiveness since the person is familiar with the product.

3. Extensible Architecture: As a first action, BFSI enterprises must make confident of the present infrastructure for incorporating mobility answers and any extension to the present infrastructure must be developed to be even further extensible. This kind of architecture enables clean scalability and flexibility for inclusion of extra and enhanced functionalities in a phased method.

4. Cloud Link: BFSI enterprises have to integrate cloud computing in mobility remedies layout and leverage this wonder system in improving upon responsiveness and productivity. Cloud computing answers can be a get to BFSI corporations which knowledge simultaneous obtain, command and updates to their documents.

5. Organization Mobility Management (EMM) and Mobile Gadget Administration (MDM): These are the two essential phrases devoid of which BFSI mobility is incomplete. Although EMM is a unified management technique that manages all the enterprise relevant products and equipment in accordance to set mobility protocols, MDM enable enterprises to centralize functions of various good devices easily, transparently and seamlessly.

BFSI Business mobility methods are not devoid of challenges. The advantages considerably outweigh the problems. These issues can be tackled properly with the adaption of simple, price tag-helpful, state of the art technological alternatives.



Supply by Divya B

Dell Online (Case Study)

Background (General Facts from Case Study)

Dell is a computer corporation recognized for manufacturing computer systems through parts assemble. In 1983, Michael Dell saw an opportunity in using IBM compatible computers for a new assembly line that can be sold to local businesses. The idea as explained by Michael Dell, in an interview with Joan Magretta[1], is that in the early days of computers’ manufacturing, companies had to be able to produce every part of the system. As the industry matured, companies started to focus on single parts and to become specialized in creating items that can be assembled with other parts to prepare a computer. As a result, Dell understood that to have a competitive edge in the market, they needed to focus on activities that drive sales instead of putting capital in producing items that other manufactures are already creating.

In the 1990’s, the computer market revolved around desktops, notebooks, and network servers. Dell competed with high-end machines from IBM, HP, and Compaq with a product line that provided value-priced systems for consumers and highly reliable networked systems for business. In the late 90’s, around 40% of households owned a pc in the US. On the contrary, from the business side, around 80% of the companies still had old server and desktop machines. Management had to approve purchasing orders, which resulted in only 2.2% of servers’ sale in comparison to the total purchases for desktop PCs in 1996.

In order for Dell to achieve $7.8 billion from sales in the late 90’s, it had to skip over the traditional channels of using retail or value-added resellers (VARs) to sell directly to the consumers . The “direct-model “or as Michael Dell comments on how his new employees call it “The model” is not that all powerful system. It is simply a way for Dell to cut on the standard supply chain cycle and deliver goods directly from the manufacturer to the customer. They created partnerships with several suppliers such as Sony, Intel, and others to deliver goods effectively at the time of the order to Dell’s plant where the assembly took place. The delivery and shipment were outsourced through a dedicated service that also insured delivering the monitors directly from the supplier at the same time. Mr. Dell talks about how suppliers are benefiting from the fact that Dell buys more items from the suppliers keeping no inventory and only requesting faster delivery upon orders.

In 1996, Dell capitalized on the growing number of customers who are using the Internet and launched its online store at dell.com. The online venture then proved to be the most appropriate sales channel that matched the supply chain direct model implemented by Dell.

In its path to compete in the market, Dell had to provide additional services such as DellPlus that enabled Dell to install commercial software packages, DellWare which provided hardware and software from other vendors, and after sales and on-site support services. These actions, as described by Michael Dell, required establishing more partnerships, which Mr. Dell describes as a process of “trial and error”. The integration with partners was changing as the technology is evolving and many venders go volatile while others remain sold. Furthermore, looking for an IT company to build the online store brought in very few players, which made Dell accept the overhead of developing the portal in-house.

Enterprise Architecture Issues

  • Supply Chain Management: The purchase and number of transactions that Dell took in required a properly configured and concise business process.
  • In-sourcing: To meet the demand of the market some parts of the process required the services of other companies that can be in partner with Dell.
  • Quality Assurance: The computer industry is a very dynamic one, which makes quality products stand out when faced with technology-oriented consumers.
  • Business Automation: As Dell advanced into online markets, its sales staff feared from losing their jobs in favor of automated sales transactions.
  • Dynamic Industry: The technology industry requires closely monitoring consumers’ trend to maintain a low gap between the point of demand and the point of supply.

Analysis

Supply Chain Management

Supply Chain Management (SCM) aims at integrating all corporate activities to improve relationships at all levels (internal operations, supplier networks, and distribution channel) to meet the competitive edge and satisfy the customer (Al-Mashari and Zairi 2000)[2]. In order to build an effective and complete business process that supports SCM, information among all business partners need to be shared. Information sharing through the Internet reduce the gap for business-to-business (B2B) commerce by enabling seamless integration with enterprise processes among partner corporations (Archer 2006)[3].

Dell developed its internal business process by creating production cells that start assembly at the point of order. It also established an internal information system to make the details of the products under production electronically available to all parties within the chain. To manage the supply of computer parts, Dell maintained close relationships with their suppliers and logistics providers to make their vendors manage the inventory system while Dell focused on product assembly (Kumar and Craig 2007)[4]. In addition, Dell used enterprise technology to make their database and methodologies available to the supplier to understand how Dell works. On the consumer side, orders made through the phone or online through dell.com produced a tracking code that the consumer can use to track the status of his or her order at any time through the phone or on Dell’s website.

In sourcing

Organizations worldwide are benefiting from the specialized services offered by various companies. In the shipping and transport arena, companies Like UPS (United Parcel Service) and DHL stand out as masters in their industry. UPS and DHL have established offices and transportation vehicles all across the world. They provide business services through in-sourcing which enables them to be part of the internal business process of companies (Marcum 2007)[5]. To a company like Toshiba for example, after-sales support service would require shipping the damaged computer to and from the consumer’s side. For that, UPS would say, “Look, instead of us picking up the machine from your customers, bringing it to our hub, then flying it from our hub to your repair facility and then flying it back to our hub and then from our hub to your customer’s house, let’s cut out all the middle steps. We, UPS, will pick it up, repair it, and send it right to your customer” (Friedman 2006)[6].

Dell understands that it need not compete unless it would get the advantage in the market. Michael Dell says that one should evaluate the competition field and pick the best one. In that context, after-sales services were contracted with firms who are specialized in that field and can be contacted directly through the integrated supply system to fulfill the requests of the consumers. Furthermore, shipping is handled through multiple shippers to deliver systems to consumers or to resellers across the world. In addition, Dell has saved the overhead cost of monitors’ delivery by requesting shippers to deliver from the monitor’s supplier directly to the consumer at the same time.

Quality Assurance

In a competitive arena, companies seek to have an advantage through means that are not necessarily related to price. Constraints against outsourcing due to excessive decentralization within organizations can have a negative impact on the value chain process. Combing various options and being open to diversification would support in increasing the speed-to-market and enhancing the quality of products (Ernst 2000)[7].

Dell has an operational facility in Penang Malaysia, which places Dell at a central position near to where most suppliers actually have their factories. Orders for goods come directly to Penang center through the integrated suppliers’ logistic centers (SLCs) chain[8]. The Penang center sends emails to suppliers requesting the parts that will be assembled based on the customer’s order. The entire model was efficient enough to require no more than 36 hours from order to shipping. In terms of quality of service, Dell has won numerous awards for highest quality. In spite of that, it continues to find means to increase the efficiency of its products. Michael Dell suggested that reducing the human interaction with hard drives during assembly would decrease its failure rate. As a result, the reduction of the number of “touches” dropped the failure rate to 20%.

Business Automation

The general attitude from individuals and employees within organizations is that automation through information systems complicate their internal processes, and might result in cutting down the number of staff (Khatibi, V.Thyagarajan and Seetharaman 2003)[9]. There are several psychological and behavioral problems associated with reluctance to change, which appear to impede the growth of E-commerce. On the other hand, retailers no longer think their web sites are simply an added benefit for their customers since the ROI (Return on Investment) percentages from online websites have far outweighed their bricks-and-mortar counterparts (Casey 2004)[10]. For that reason, the staff involved in the traditional sales process requires training to embrace new technologies and to learn how they can benefit from it.

For Dell online store the response from the consumers was huge, however, at first the sales representatives feared that the online website would reduce the number of sale deals they closed. To overcome this, Dell introduced the cost saving model showing how the online store would support sales representative close more deals and at the same time would produce cost effective results that would have a positive ROI on the business.

Dynamic Industry

Customer relations management (CRM) is a very vital competency that was born from the amount of transactional sales deals through call centers. The process of understanding customers goes through the initial phase of collecting data then analyzing trends and eventually building a knowledge base that will drive the profitable relationship (Liew 2008)[11]. Organizations’ use of CRM models is an attempt to get firsthand knowledge that would improve marketing effectiveness, bring more personalization, and build brands among other objectives based on the nature of the business (Anderson, Jolly and Fairhurst 2007)[12].

Michael Dell model is based on keeping no inventory, in order for Dell to maintain that they focused on segmenting their customers into scalable businesses that can be analyzed for their level of demand. Sales executives at Dell used communication skills to elicit information from customers that would further support the demand forecast initiatives at the company. In addition, Dell sent surveys to customers to further understand the satisfaction level with the services provided by Dell and modify its product line and services accordingly. Furthermore, Michael Dell discussed how regional meetings in various countries invited potential customers to further enrich the relationship and give room for comments and feedback about Dell’s services. On top of all that, Dell strived to provide information for its customers to help them make proper choices for their IT requirements and gain privileged information about new and upcoming technologies. Dell invested in developing a web portal in the form of “Premier Pages” for high-end customers and another for small to medium businesses at Dellmarketplace.com[13]. Both sites aim at providing information to customers and establishing a single point of access for customers’ IT service requirements.

Conclusions

Dell is simply a success story; it shows how one can gain market advantage by simply understanding what brings value to customers. No one, even Michael Dell himself when he started, thought that people would enjoy customizing their PC orders and wait patiently as the order makes its way back to their homes. Some studies talk about how people challenged the initial delivery estimates provided by Dell to see if they were met.

The level of expansion Dell strived to achieve brought in problems as with any growing business. However, by adapting techniques such as In-sourcing and mutual benefit partnerships it reduced its potential staff from 80,000 to only 15,000. Dell also was aware of factors that would hinder its supply chain. For example, they maintained a multiple list of shippers as not to be affected by unexpected delays and organizational issues. In addition, they understood the importance of developing their own enterprise systems in-house to control all the variables and maintain their business processes.

This is one of the best case studies in the IT industry. I believe the level of commitment Dell showed in the model he created is inspiring. On the editorial side, I believe more highlights on the internal infrastructure of Dell’s network would have helped in building an understanding of how the supply chain actually worked. Did they use CRM modules, ERP, SCM, or a combination of all? How did Dell secure its information link with its suppliers, were all of them mature enough when it came to Information systems?

Recommendations

  • Organizations should focus on value adding activities like establishing online portals for their customers.
  • Businesses should conduct frequent surveys to measure the level of service they provide and work on enhancing their products.
  • Organizations should decentralize and enable expansion through global techniques such as out-sourcing and in-sourcing.
  • Building internal enterprise information systems is the most effective methodology for information and knowledge sharing.
  • Establishing multiple touch points with customers, strengthen the relationship and increases satisfaction levels.
  • Meeting global quality standards is the only way to get an advantage in a competitive arena.
  • Internal organization assessment and training is vital to maintain the high spirit of employees and increase their productivity.
  • Management support and funding is a key element in the success of any information system implementation.

References

  1. Joan Magretta , “The Power of Virtual Integration: An Interview with Dell Computer’s Michael Dell.” Harvard Business Review 76, no. 2 (Mar/Apr 1998): 72-84, 13, 2.
  2. Majed Al-Mashari and Mohamed Zairi, “Supply-chain re-engineering using enterprise resource planning (ERP) systems: an analysis of a SAP R/3 implementation case.” International Journal of Physical Distribution & Logistics Management 30, no. 3/4 (2000): 296-313
  3. Norman P. Archer, “Supply chains and the enterprise” Journal of Enterprise Information 19, no. 3 (2006): 241-245, 242
  4. Sameer Kumar and Sarah Craig, “Dell, Inc.’s closed loop supply chain for computer assembly plants.” Information Knowledge Systems Management 6, no. 3 (2007): 197-214,18.
  5. Marcum, Jennifer. “In-Source or Outsource?” BioProcess International, June 2007
  6. Thomas L. Friedman, The World Is Flat (New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2006), 168.
  7. Dieter Ernst, “Inter-Organizational Knowledge Outsourcing: What Permits Small Taiwanese Firms to Compete in the Computer Industry?” Asia Pacific Journal of Management (Springer Netherlands) 17, no. 2 (August 2000): 223-255, 248
  8. Friedman, The World is Flat, 516
  9. Ali Khatibi, V.Thyagarajan, and A. Seetharaman, “E-commerce in Malaysia: Perceived Benefits and Barriers.” Vikalpa: The Journal for Decision Makers 28, no. 3 (Jul-Sep 2003): 77-82, 6.
  10. Bernadette Casey, “Online Monday blacker than in-store Friday.” DSN Retailing Today, December 13, 2004: 13-13,0.
  11. Chor-Beng Anthony Liew, “Strategic integration of knowledge management and customer relationship management.” Journal of Knowledge Management 12, no. 4 (2008): 131-146.
  12. Anderson, Joan L., Laura D. Jolly, and Ann E. Fairhurst. “Customer relationship management in retailing: A content analysis of retail trade journals.” Journal of Retailing & Consumer Services 14, no. 6 (November 2007): 394-399, 6.
  13. Alorie Gilbert, “Dell Online Marketplace Targets Small Businesses.” Electronic Buyers’ News, October 2, 2000: 58, 0.



Source by Sally Ahmed

All You Need to Know About What an Embedded PC Is

The following article would prove to be much beneficial to those who don’t know what an “Embedded PC” is, as well as to those, who get confused in between the term General purpose systems and Embedded Systems.

An embedded PC is an exceptional system in which the PC is totally typified by the gadget it controls. Not at all like a broadly useful PC, for example, a PC, an embedded system performs pre-characterized errands, for the most part with particular prerequisites. Since the framework is devoted to a particular task, its designers can streamline it, lessening the size and cost of the item. Embedded PCs are regularly mass-created, so the cost investment funds might be increased by a huge number of things.

A few common examples of embedded PCs incorporate ATMs, phones, printers, indoor regulators, calculators, and video game reassures. Handheld PCs or PDAs are additionally viewed as embedded gadgets due to the way of their equipment configuration, despite the fact that they are more expandable in programming terms. Much the same as common PCs, embedded PCs have the basic segments namely the central processing unit, Random access memory, read-only memory, yield gadgets, input gadgets and a clock. Be that as it may, dissimilar to PCs for general purposes, a dedicated PC has lesser requests for hardware, for example, expansion of memory and storage room. Because of expanded rivalry, numerous PC organizations are progressively wandering into the consumer electronics.

Advantages of Embedded PCs

Small Size

Since embedded PCs are application particular, the specially crafted framework will have just the important parts and thus essentially smaller than a general PC.

Reduced cost

The framework has lesser number of segments when contrasted with a general purpose PC, so it slowly gets to be distinctly less expensive, in most of the times.

Portability

Little size means versatility. A considerable measure of embedded PCs we utilize keep running on battery and can be conveyed in a pocket. E.g; number cruncher, advanced watch and so forth.

Real time response

Embedded PCs are additionally called real-time systems, where the reaction to the outer occasion has a hard limit for execution. Subsequently, they are better for applications where the reaction to an outer occasion is basic. E.g: Deploying airbags inside an auto after the impact.

Disadvantages of Embedded PCs

Every gadget or technology in this world does comprise of some disadvantages as well, some disadvantages of PCs are:

Not so easy to reconfigure or change

Once an embedded system is shipped (or settled), it will be hard to change its design – both its equipment and programming. Remote upgrade of programming is conceivable given the ability is incorporated. Subsequently, the appropriate analysis of requirement is an absolute necessity before the deployment. Equipment arrangement change will be much trickier which may require existing sheets be totally supplanted.

Scalability issues

Since it is hard to change the arrangement, an embedded framework can’t be effortlessly scaled up as request/extension changes. Said as much, planted PCs can be intended to scale up, for instance, utilizing development ports or systems administration and so forth. This implies it must be chosen in advance, while the plan is being assembled.

Some Differences between General purpose PCs and Embedded PCs

• A general purpose PC, for instance, our PCs are utilized for various tasks.

• Embedded Computer can just work on a particular errand.

• General PCs can work at various tasks while running distinctive application programming.

• This is not the situation with implanted PC. They are customized for specific usefulness.



Source by Mike Patrick

Unidentified Flying Objects: The Extraterrestrial Hypothesis: Part Two

INTRODUCTION: With both the existence of pure theory and applied evidence supporting the plausibility of the UFO ETH – where the UFO remains a UFO after appropriate expert analysis has failed to find a more terrestrial explanation – lets look at a few more snippets of the phenomena.

FADS: A fad is a temporary fashion – a flavour of the month. Fads come, and fads go. For example, the big band/swing era; white wall tires and tail fins; hula hoops and yo-yos; the Charleston and the Twist; disco music, pet rocks, slicked back hair (greasy kids stuff) and wearing baseball caps on backwards; westerns on TV and the silver screen have mostly ridden off into the sunset; goldfish swallowing; miniskirts, bell bottom trousers and hot pants; and lots more. A fad can be anything that you adopt as a cultural value-adding to your lifestyle that sets you apart from the community at large, yet keeps you reasonably associated as being a part of your contemporaries, but which you could drop from your lifestyle if you wished or if you were required to. It’s often the next ‘must have’ gadget that you just can’t live without (so you are told), but which will be superseded in a year or two by the next ‘must have’ gadget Mark II.

Non-fads are anything that are personal choices yet are also really essential to your day-to-day existence – so a thing like eating isn’t a fad. Sex isn’t a fad. Social interactions aren’t a fad. Even bicycles aren’t faddish because they have become an overall essential, tried and true ways and means of transport. Or, non-fads could be anything that an outside reality clobbers you over the head with, like the weather, death and taxes!

To repeat, fads are temporary phenomena, only briefly imprinting themselves on our collective psyche before the next big thing comes along. What’s the duration of a fad? There’s no fixed time frame – clothing fashions can change drastically from one year to the next; the influence of a blockbuster TV series or a motion picture, or say toys – maybe over several years. TV series don’t normally last more than one generation, usually far less. So, I’ll pick an average of one generation, on the grounds that the next generation don’t want to imitate or do like their parents did. They’d rather do their own thing in their own way. Kids born in the 1980’s aren’t likely to get to misty-eyed and nostalgic over Elvis and the Beatles and “I Love Lucy”.

Well, UFOs (and crop circles) are both way over a generation old now. UFOs in fact are over three generations old by now and going strong. That in itself suggests to me that UFOs are not a mere passing fad, but reflecting a reality that’s something more permanent or on-going.

Fads and non-fads appear in all manner of genres. There are fads in sports, say in baseball where for a while the accent is on power and home runs, yet a decade later it’s the hit-and-run, the sacrifice bunt or fly, walks, and base stealing. Yet a non-fad in baseball is throwing strikes and not making defensive errors.

What about science? Unlike say ‘cold fusion’, SETI is not a scientific fad; it’s gone on way too long for that. The man-on-the-Moon (Apollo) program however proved to be just that – a temporary blip on the landscape. Science graduates often have to choose career paths based on that’s likely to be non-faddish, long-term science. For example, string theory has been a reasonable career path for physics students for many decades now, so string theory can no longer be considered a fad in physics.

One thing is pretty clear – participation in a fad is something voluntary. So, crop circles, if all are manufactured by humans, would have to be faddish, were it not for the long duration of the phenomena. If crop circles, at least in part, have nothing to do with human proclivities to hoax others, then there’s no fad. UFO hoaxes are faddish; immediately jumping to conclusions of alien spaceships when seeing just a light in the sky is voluntary. But, if bona fide alien UFOs are a reality, then seeing one isn’t voluntary and UFOs therefore aren’t a fad.

The bottom line seems to be, if it proves to be ongoing, without any prior cultural background infrastructure, it’s not a fad. If it’s likely to die out within a generation or so, and it can be explained as a natural progression of what culturally has come before, then it’s a fad.

So, are UFOs (and say crop circles) a passing fad? Are UFOs all in the mind, something we adopt as a temporary way of assisting us coping with current reality, perhaps a novelty to give us respite from the ordinary? Are UFOs a reflection of our existing culture, say as expressed via Hollywood themes? Or, are UFOs like the weather – ever present and hammering that point home to us? Does Hollywood reflect the actual presence of UFOs in their themes, or are films perpetuating them in a faddish sort of way?

The origin of the UFO phenomena, if one is to believe the idea that UFOs are all in the mind, was due to the onset of the Cold War, and hundreds of Hollywood films in the fifties played up to the red menace threat, often in the guise of alien invasions (can you recall that catch phrase ‘look to the skies’?). So, if UFOs are a fad, shouldn’t they have died out after the end of the Cold War and the demise of the red menace – reds under the beds? Whatever the origin of UFOs actually was, it does seem to be an origin independent of any cultural influences and no reasonable attempt to culturally explain them, and maintain their presence for over six decades, appears adequate.

Whatever bona fide unexplained UFOs are, they certainly aren’t a fad, rather an ever ongoing phenomenon that’s part and parcel of our environmental background, cause or causes unknown, but probably extraterrestrial IMHO.

HILL, BETTY & BARNEY: The Betty and Barney Hill UFO abduction case is a way more credible case than most. Why? Firstly, it was the first – no prior contamination and media saturation with the subject could have influenced them. Secondly, it’s unlikely a mature couple (not teenagers or young adults), and an interracial middle-aged couple at that, with no particular interest in UFOs or sci-fi, would invent such an abduction tale detailing the same sorts of beings that we’ve come to know and love now – the greys. An interracial couple (this was the 60’s) wouldn’t need that sort of publicity, and they certainly didn’t make any fortune out of eventually going public. Lastly, the alleged abduction didn’t happen in their bedroom; it happened while they were driving their car back from holiday. So we have two witnesses giving the same story.

Further reading regarding Betty & Barney Hill:

Friedman, Stanton T. & Marden, Kathleen; Captured! The Betty and Barney Hill UFO Experience; New Page Books, Franklin Lakes, New Jersey; 2007: [Kathleen Marden is the late Betty Hill’s niece and trustee of her estate.]

Fuller, John G.: The Interrupted Journey: Two Lost Hours “Aboard a Flying Saucer”; Dial Press, New York; 1966:

NAME DROPPING: There are physical scientists with professional academic qualifications, who took (or take) the UFO ETH (extraterrestrial hypothesis) question very seriously. Scientists like J. Allen Hynek (scientific advisor the USAF Project Blue Book), James E. McDonald, Jacques Vallee, Bruce Maccabee and Richard F. Haines.

I should also point out that both the former heads of the USAF Project Blue Book (Edward J. Ruppelt) and the British Dept. of Defence UFO study (Nick Pope) wrote books detailing their experiences, and both took the subject very seriously indeed.

Then there are former NASA astronauts like Gordon Cooper and Edgar Mitchell who have come out in no uncertain terms that the UFO ETH is not only plausible, but beyond doubt.

For every well known UFO debunker or sceptic, there’s an equal and opposite pro-UFO = pro-ETH counterpart. In fact, based on over four decades of serious interest in this field, I’ve noted that there have been far more sceptics turned UFO = ETH believers, than the other way around.

ROSWELL 1947: My bits and pieces wouldn’t be complete without reference to Roswell. I don’t wish to say too much about the Roswell, N.M. case (July 1947), other than to point out that the then US Army Air Force admitted publicly, in the media, in newspapers, on radio, that they had captured one of those mysterious (and only recently sighted – the modern UFO era was just weeks old) flying discs. No amount of back-pedalling can alter that now historical fact. It’s on the record. Look it up yourself! But wait, there’s more, and I’m not making any of this up. Firstly, forget the dozens of after-the-fact investigators into Roswell and their tomes. The only thing that really counts here is first hand, on-the-spot, eye-witness accounts. When it comes to that, the name Marcel should ring your bells and whistles.

Major Jesse Marcel (Senior) was the Army Air Force (AAF) as it was then called, military officer directed to investigate the report of some mysterious debris scattered outside of town. Now to achieve a rank of Major, in the military, suggests you’ve been around for a while. You’re not some newly commissioned greenhorn Second Louie. It suggests that one is competent enough to distinguish wheat from chaff. So, Major Marcel (Senior), upon on-site investigation of this crashed debris, became so excited that he actually took some of the debris home to show his family, waking up his young child (Jesse Marcel, Junior) in the middle of the night. It’s the sort of thing a SETI scientist might excitedly do if s/he received ‘that’ signal. Afterward, of course, that, and all the other debris was collected by and turned over to the local AAF. Because of the unusual and highly suggestive other-worldly nature of the debris, the base commander ordered his public relations officer to issue a press statement that the AAF at Roswell had collected the crashed remains of one of these new fangled flying discs. Within 24 hours, higher authority directed that the story be changed and what had actually been recovered was a weather balloon. Major Marcel, the base commander and the press officer, being dutiful military types, just followed orders and said nothing – then. The actual debris was then flown off-site, off the Roswell base, first to Texas (where real weather balloon bits were displayed for a press conference), hence onwards elsewhere, but has apparently vanished now off the face of the Earth, unless of course it is still stored under classified wraps.

That a Major in the US AAF somehow could not tell the difference between debris from a crashed weather balloon (or even in yet another turnaround about-face, a Project Mogul balloon trail – well it’s still just a balloon) and a metallic crashed disc is too implausible or incredible to believe or take seriously. It’s like saying a SETI scientist couldn’t tell the difference between Morse Code and the radio hiss from the Big Bang’s cosmic microwave background radiation!

But wait, there’s more! After Marcel (Senior) retired from the military, he went public with his side of the story – weather balloon? Not a snowballs chance in Hell. His son, 11 years old at the time daddy woke him up, became a medical doctor and also a career military officer. But he now too has spoken out publicly and written about his, and his father’s encounters with what they both termed not-of-this-world technology. Marcel (Junior) remembers vividly that night and that material from the crashed disc collected by his father.

You can find relevant interviews with (now the late) Jesse Marcel (Senior), and his son, Dr. Jesse Marcel (Junior) on YouTube.

The Roswell AAF base commander (Colonel William Blanchard) was never reprimanded or disciplined for ordering the ‘crashed disc’ press release. In fact he eventually rose to the rank of that of Four-Star General.

The First Lieutenant, Walter Haut, who actually issued that press release, also issued a death bed affidavit attesting to the accuracy of the actual (no weather balloon) Roswell events.

Finally, the biggest ‘giggle’ factor detrimental to Roswell credibility are the reports of the alien bodies recovered. Why this should be so is beyond me for if UFOs are ‘manned’ by aliens, and if a UFO crashed, then it stands to reason that there will be alien bodies too – alive or dead. Of course one could argue that maybe the UFOs aren’t ‘manned’, but remote controlled drones – we have such things ourselves. Maybe the alien is actually a form of extraterrestrial artificial intelligence – an onboard machine intelligence that controls/pilots the UFO, and resulting crash debris one couldn’t tell the difference between the remains of the ‘pilot’ from the rest of the nuts and bolts. But back to the bodies – by analogy, on balance, it would seem odd for an airliner to crash and there be no bodies. I find the idea of ‘alien bodies’ to contribute no extra ‘giggle’ factor to the Roswell incident.

Further reading on Roswell:

Marcel, Jesse (Junior); The Roswell Legacy: The Untold Story of the First Military Officer at the 1947 Crash Site; New Page Books, Franklin Lakes, New Jersey; 2009:

SETI vs. UFOs: So sorry to have to say this, but UFOs have a lot more runs on the board than SETI (the Search for ExtraTerrestrial Intelligence), despite SETI being legit, accredited and accepted science and UFOs anything but. The track record for UFOs as a bona fide ETI subject is way better than the track record for SETI. As even UFO sceptics (like SETI scientists) have to acknowledge, some 5% to 10% of all UFO sightings or incidents remain hard core UFO sightings or incidents after proper analysis (and thus remain plausible or viable candidates for the UFO ETH) – the ‘unknowns’ category. If 5% to 10% of all interesting-at-first-glance SETI signals also proved, after proper analysis, to be legitimate ‘unknowns’; ‘WOW’ signals after the one and only one such ‘unknown’ ever recorded, that would really set the SETI community abuzz. That one SETI “WOW” signal has withstood the test of time – it remains a bona fide SETI unknown. My point is that each and every one of those 5 to 10% bona-fide unexplainable UFO incidents is, for all practical purposes, a “WOW” event, equal in potential to the lone SETI “WOW” signal. In the case of the UFO, the collective of “WOW” events now number in the thousands to tens of thousands. As I said, UFOs have more “WOW” runs on the board than SETI.

Another point is that say there’s one extraterrestrial technologically advanced civilization reasonably close to by – say within 10 to 50 light-years. Say their radio leakage window of (our) opportunity for (our) successful SETI is 100 to 200 years before all transmission traffic is via fibre optical or other cable and the radio noise, their radio leakage, for all practical purpose ceases. So, SETI has up to 200 years to point an antenna tuned at the right frequency and pointed in the right direction to log up a success story. Now, what’s the duration of our extraterrestrial civilization’s attempts to boldly go – interstellar exploration? 100 years? 200 years? No, its way more than that because once started, even assuming the home planet goes kaput, exploration is ever ongoing. So the window of opportunity for us stay-at-home terrestrials to detect these boldly going extraterrestrials (and sooner of later we’d be accidentally stumbled over even if we hadn’t been detected before-the-fact due to our bio-signatures – technological or otherwise) is also pretty unlimited. If they are not here now (UFOs), maybe there’s some evidence they were here 200, 2000 or 20,000 years ago; or maybe tomorrow. The argument doesn’t really alter that much if at all no matter how many technologically advanced (capable of both radio and interstellar travel) there are. Radio leakage is short term; exploration is long term. Therefore, UFOs are a better bet than SETI.

Now that’s not an attack on SETI. I like SETI; it’s good science. I wish SETI every success and if SETI captures THE signal tomorrow, I’d be delighted. It’s just that SETI isn’t the only game in town. UFO research is not a replacement for traditional SETI, but complementary.

SETI scientists & UFO ETH hunters have something in common – they both need the (deliberate or inadvertent) cooperation of what they seek – aliens (if aliens they be). SETI scientists need that radio (or optical or infrared) transmission. UFO hunters need UFOs to just bloody well stand still, or at least have the decency to crash in a public location!

STARGATE: SG-1 / USAF / UFO CONNECTION: “Stargate: SG-1” was a TV spin-off of the feature film “Stargate” that ran for ten seasons and featured several alien races that in the main had links to ancient terrestrial mythology. One such race was the Asgards, and as the name suggests had connection with our Old Norse mythology. The interesting bit was that in appearance, the Asgards just happen to look exactly like the standard ‘greys’ of modern UFO (Roswell and abduction, etc.) lore. This was I’m sure quite by design and no coincidence. This fictional show also confirmed several times over that Area 51 both housed and studied alien/extraterrestrial technology. And so, the fact that both ‘greys’ and Area 51 feature on the show makes one other observation and interesting observation. That other interesting bit is that the stargate in “Stargate: SG-1” was a (fictional) USAF top secret enterprise. The TV show featuring the stargate had the endorsement and cooperation of the actual USAF, probably because the TV show portrayed the USAF in a positive light. In fact, two actual then currently serving USAF Chiefs of Staff (4-star generals) appeared in the actual TV show as themselves! How’s that for endorsement? So, we have the actual USAF assisting (by providing an advisory role, aircraft and personnel to the show) and endorsing a TV show that prominently featured UFO ‘greys’. Okay, I’m probably reading way to much into that. In all probability the USAF connection probably had no actual relevance to any indirect approval of the UFO ‘greys’ in the show by the USAF. That ‘endorsement’ is just pure speculation on my part. So I do have to admit that there’s probably no deep meaning underlying this connection, but I still find it interesting.

UNKNOWNS, THE: The fact, as most sceptics readily acknowledge, is that between 5 and 10 percent of all reported UFO incidents remain unidentified after investigation by those qualified to do so. This fact apparently excites the scientific, astrobiology, and SETI communities not one jot. But, as noted above, if SETI received out of all radio signals, 5% to 10% unexplained radio signals, (“WOW” signals), that of course would set the SETI community abuzz.

In a similar vein, if 5 to 10 percent of particle interactions were unexplainable by the current standard model of particle physics, that would set the physics community abuzz without question.

If the speed of light varied ever so slightly 5% to 10% of the times it were measured, the special relativity community would be agog, and extremely interested.

If 5 to 10 percent of galaxies showed a discrepancy between their red-shifts and their distances, that would set the cosmology community abuzz.

So, why the big scientific yawn over the apparently bona fide UFO’s unidentified percentage? Perhaps it might take sociologists who study the sociology of science to pin that one down. There’s a mystery just begging for serious attention here that has the potential for massive ramifications, not just scientific ones.

VALENTICH 1976: One of many, many highly unexplained UFO cases, is the events surrounding Frederick Valentich on 21 October 1978. It’s more a case of where there’s smoke, there’s smoke, but smoke there certainly is, and lots of it.

In a nutshell, on the evening of that date, Mr. Valentich piloted a private plane from Melbourne, intended destination, King Island in Bass Strait. He took off only to shortly thereafter radio in that there was this UFO hovering over him. The UFO was spotted by several independent witnesses. While radioing his observations, all contact ceased; all communications abruptly ended. Mr. Valentich, plane and all, vanished without trace. An extensive air and sea search failed to find any sign of Mr. Valentich, or his plane. No oil slick, no floating wreckage, no body – nothing, zip, bugger-all. No trace has ever been found of pilot or plane – not then, not since, not ever. The weather had been perfect for night flying.

One obvious explanation was that Mr. Valentich staged his own disappearance, although friends and family could offer no reason why he would do so. Of course many people voluntarily disappear themselves for various reasons; many eventually are found, are caught or reappear voluntarily. But keep in mind; it wasn’t just Mr. Valentich who disappeared. One entire aircraft vanished as well, never to be seen again. Surely if Mr. Valentich wanted to ‘drop out’, there were easier and less conspicuous ways of doing so. If he had deliberately gone walkabout, in these decades since of security cameras and computer facial software recognition technology, it would be hard to remain an unknown walkabout in any populated area.

Was suicide a motive? Again, no wreckage or body was ever found, and who would go to all the bother of reporting a non-existent UFO overhead – a non-existent UFO that happened to be independently reported by others.

And what of the plane since no wreckage was ever found floating on the surface of Bass Strait; washed up on beaches, or found on the ocean bottom – Bass Strait isn’t that deep.

It’s a mystery, and while it doesn’t prove aliens nicked off with Mr. Valentich and plane, there’s not that much wriggle room. Now multiply this sort of unexplained case by the thousands worldwide, and you do have the ETH as a plausible hypothesis.

Interestingly, despite my asking for a copy of the Valentich ‘accident’ case report in an official capacity related to my employment at the time, the Department of Transport (Air Safety Investigations Branch) refused. To this day, to the best of my knowledge, that report has never been publicly released.

Further reading regarding Valentich:

Haines, Richard F.; Melbourne Episode: Case Study of A Missing Pilot; L.D.A. Press, Los Altos, California; 1987: [Dr. Haines was at the time a research scientist for NASA and an accredited air safety investigations officer.]

WAR OF THE WORLDS SCENARIO: No, I don’t mean by this that there is any analogy between the UFO ETH and alien invasion, a typical example being the “War of the Worlds” (be it the novel, the movies, the TV series, the musical, etc.). I refer here to the ultimate resolution of that alien war scenario – that ultimately what defeated the Martians were terrestrial microbes – bacteria to which the alien invaders had no resistance. That was a really excellent plot device – it was also lousy science! If there is one truism in biology, it is that cross-species infection is rare. There are of course a few exceptions to the cross-species infection rule, but they remain by far a minor, minor, minority. Micro-organisms tend to be species specific in terms of their nastiness. Thus, if I sneeze, my cats aren’t in any danger of catching my cold – and vice versa. I’m not about to infect any of my garden plants by touching them with my dirty soiled hands – I’m not likely to become infected with deadly disease from a maple tree. If a wild bird has beak and feather disease and my cats should happen to catch and eat it – well, the bird was doomed anyway, and I’m not going to have to rush the feline predator off to the vet for shots! So, if it is relatively unlikely for one terrestrial species to be a contagion towards another terrestrial species (unless they are very closely related – evolutionary speaking), then what odds a terrestrial species will be deadly to an extraterrestrial species – and vice versa.

What’s the point of all this? Well, if UFOs can be explained by the ETH, then it is unlikely in the extreme that the ETH exists in a species vacuum. That is, ‘ufonauts’ (for lack of a better term), will be associated with their extraterrestrial micro-organisms (maybe ever their extraterrestrial equivalents of head lice, mites, bedbugs, cockroaches and rats depending on how hygienic they are). We do not exist in a bacteria free environment, nor could we even if we wanted to. ‘Ufonaut’ bodies and their UFOs will be as ‘bacteria-ridden’ as our bodies, our homes, automobiles, and in fact any and all other bits and pieces of our environment. We haven’t endured or experienced any pandemic or epidemic due to micro-organisms associated with ‘ufonauts’, and presumably ‘ufonauts’ haven’t caught cold or smallpox or the measles from microbes associated with us, our cats, birds, or any other terrestrial life forms.

So, UFO sceptics can’t invoke the “War of the Worlds” resolution as an argument that the UFO ETH is an invalid one. So, by all means, shake hands with ET (if you meet him/her/it) and don’t worry about any resulting medical bill – it ain’t gonna happen.

However, this does open up an interesting research area – one I’ve never, ever, seen mentioned in the UFO literature. That is, extraterrestrial microbiology. If UFOs are piloted by alien beings, biological beings that must be associated with extraterrestrial micro-organisms, then presumably said ET microbes have entered into our terrestrial biosphere. Presumably, said ET microbes would be so biochemically distinct or unique that any microbiologist examining same would immediately note that something was afoot! Of course, if you’re not looking out for it, you’re unlikely to find it or get that ‘eureka’ moment even if you do find it. Perhaps UFO abductees or UFO landing sites should be examined for the presence of extraterrestrial microbes.

So what then to make of the (late Sir) Fred Hoyle et al. claims or ideas that some of our terrestrial disease outbreaks originated from outer space? It’s a variation on the panspermia idea – life on Earth originated from extraterrestrial microbiological life forms seeding our planet. Specifically that is, Earth’s orbit intersects now and again a stream of bacteria-laden cometary dust and debris – germs from outer space – that impact Earth’s atmosphere and ultimately filter down to ground level and do their infectious thing. Well, there’s no conflict. The two sources of alien microbes are just that – two independent extraterrestrial sources that have no connection with each other. Of course relatively few experts in infectious diseases give any credibility to Hoyle’s theory so that might eliminate that. Then too many scientists give any credibility to the UFO ETH, hence to alien microbes originating from that source. Whether none, one or both ideas have credibility doesn’t result in any ultimate contradictions.

WASHINGTON, D.C. 1952: In July 1952, on two separate occasions, separated by one week, UFOs buzzed America’s National Capitol, making long term incursions over restricted air space. They were tracked, independently, by various civilian and military radars. Military jet fighters were scrambled to intercept and identify the UFOs, but were outmatched and didn’t succeed, although they were witnessed by the pilots. The objects were also witnessed from the ground. USAF Major-General John A. Samford, at the largest Pentagon press conference ever held since WWII, in late July 1952, made the statement with respect to the recent Washington D.C. UFO flap that these sightings were made by “credible observers of relatively incredible things”. It’s on the public record.

Now of course these sightings had to be explained by any means necessary since you just cannot admit to having unknown aerial objects fly over restricted air space. So the idea of ‘temperature inversions’ explained all – hogwash. It’s amazing that the common occurrence of ‘temperature inversions’ had never before, and never since, caused such commotion.

THE END (For Now)



Source by John Prytz

National Skills Shortage in Computer Forensics

Computer Forensics, or Digital Forensics to give it another name, is something that in today’s fast moving environment has become as much part of policing as walking the beat or patrolling or the mobile unit.

As technology progresses and it does so extremely quickly these days, so to do the ways in which technology is applied to crime and its uses by the criminal. Whereas in the past when crime was much more straightforward and involved a physical presence, Computer Crime requires, in some instances, nothing more than a computer, access to the internet, and the personal information of an unwitting individual.

As this type of computer criminal becomes more and more common so too does the need for experts in the field of Computer Forensics Analysis. However in the United Kingdom at the present time there is a shortage of trained professionals in this field which leaves the computer criminal at a distinct advantage.

Computer Forensics is used in a variety of different ways and not simply as a means of producing an auditable trail of data. A Computer Forensics Analysis of a laptop or desktop machine can provide valuable information as to not only how the machine was used to perpetrate a crime, but also who used the machine to commit the crime.

As individuals we all have certain ways of typing and committing words to a page and this is all very much part and parcel of the Computer Forensics Experts job, identifying these common traits and using them to help produce a profile.

The role of Computer Forensics Analysis in a court case is vitally important especially if that case pertains to the use of computers as a means to defraud money or in the distribution of materials deemed illegal such as pornography and child pornography. An expert Computer Witness will be able to provide such analysis to members of the jury, the judge, and the defense and prosecution teams in a way that is both informative and yet easily enough understood so as not to muddy the waters.

Such a witness is invaluable in both the prosecution and defense of a case and can be utilised to provide expert Computer Forensic Analysis and also provide the jury, who are not necessarily familiar with such terms, with easily digestible and retainable information.

Indeed an expert witness may also be able to physically demonstrate to the court just how a criminal has managed to perpetrate a crime especially if this crime is committed over a distance.

As touched upon earlier there is a shortage of such personnel in the United Kingdom at the present time and this is in no small part due to the face that computer crime is on the increase and becoming more sophisticated. Such trained personnel are invaluable to a case and are fully conversant with ACPO (Association of Chief Police Officers) guidelines.

With such a shortage of trained personnel it is fair to say that the floodgates have been opened for the Computer Criminal. He, she or they (it is often common to find such individuals working in cells using complex networks and IT infrastructures) are more likely to evade a thorough investigation and subsequent prosecution without the assistance of trained Computer Expert Witnesses and their informed analysis.

These trained personnel are often in short supply because of the need for more than one discipline when it comes to Computer Forensics Analysis.

Network Forensics is often such that an Computer Forensics Expert will be required to examine the data on a large number of computers either networked together physically (hard-wired) or operating as satellites as part of a Wi-Fi network. This particular type of auditing is particularly useful and often provides vital information in the prosecution of computer crime especially when it is necessary to link together a number of individuals spread over a large geographical area.

It is important to remember also that the analysis provided by a Computer Expert Witness is not only used to help in the prosecution or defense of a case at a judicial level but also can be used in helping to identify and prevent further instances of Computer Crime. Moreover this is something that has, and will have, an impact when it comes to fighting e-crime in the future as the e-criminals and their methods become more sophisticated and harder to track.



Source by Andy Frowen

Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry Advantages and Disadvantages

Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) combine two powerful techniques in order to provide the identification of compounds that have low detection limits and potential required for quantitative analysis. Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry analyses works on liquids, solid and gaseous samples but are primarily restricted to semi volatile and volatile compounds.

Under Gas Chromatography, a sample is carried and volatilized and carried by the inter gases through a coated glass Capillary Column. The stationary phase is joined to the interior of the column and the amount of time it takes a specific compound of an element to pass through this column on to a detector is called its “Retention Time”. These measurements are used for identification purpose when compared to references.

Under usual Mass Spectrometry or MS step under the Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry, the compounds leaving the GC columns are fragmented by the electron impact. These charged fragments are detected gradually and the subsequent spectrum obtained is used to identify the molecules. Fragmentation patterns are reproducible and thus, can be used to create quantitative measurements.

Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry analysis is performed on gases, solids and liquids. For gases and liquids, the samples are usually injected directly into the Gas Chromatogram. For the solid elements, the analysis is carried our through outgrassing or desorption, solvent extraction or pyrolysis. Desorption experiment is performed under the flow of helium gas at controlled temperature ranging between 40 to 300 degree Celsius. The analytes are then collected on a Cryogenic trap during desorption process. The sample chamber is a 1.25″x4″ cylinder.

Pyrolysis is yet another sampling technique used for the analysis of materials that are impossible to be directly injected into Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry. Under this process, heat is directly applied to the sample that results in breaking down of the molecules in a reproducible way. These smaller molecules are then introduced in the Gas Chromatogram and analyzed by the GC-MS. By this method, probe temperatures of up to 1400ÂșC can be used.

Several other sampling methods and sample preparation are available such as static headspace analysis, derivatization, purge and trap, Solid Phase Microextraction etc. having applications based on species of interests and sample types.

Strengths

  • Identification of organic components through separating complex mixtures
  • Quantitative analysis
  • Trace determination of organic contamination (low to mid-ppb level for liquid matrices and low nanogram level for solid matrices?

Ideal Uses

  • Identifying and quantifying volatile organic compounds in mixtures
  • Outgassing studies
  • Testing for residual solvents
  • Evaluating contaminants on semiconductor wafers or other technology products (thermal desorption)
  • Identifying trace impurities in liquids or gases

Limitations of Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry

  • Non-volatile matrices (wafers, metal parts oil, etc.) require additional prep (extraction, outgassing, etc.)
  • Evaluating extracts from plastics
  • Target compounds must either be volatile or capable of derivatization
  • Atmospheric gases are challenging (CO2, N2, O2, Ar, CO, H2O)

Advantages

GC MS has long been considered to be the Gold Standard for all sorts of analytical laboratories. It is a strong analytical tool that uses time for the chemical elements to travel through the GC column, the retention time as compared to known standards to identify the chemical. It is a good technique for simple mixtures and for situations where the chemicals of concern are known and calibrated before running samples. Though there are advantages and disadvantages of all the process but together these factors are helpful in evolution and advancement of laboratory processes and identification of elements.



Source by Jagat Kumar Rakesh

Definition of a Company Analyst

In accordance to Dictionary.com internet site a Organization Analyst (BA) assess the organization and style of businesses, governing administration departments, and non-revenue companies. BAs also examine small business models and their integration with technological innovation.

Essentially, the obligations and activities performed by a small business analyst are different, but the most considerable goal is generally to progress the interaction concerning the stakeholders and the undertaking builders. Company analysts come to be far more productive when they have undergone ideal prerequisites schooling that educate them how to grow to be effective communicators and how to obtain and generate the prerequisites of the stakeholders.

Company analysis has 4 tiers. These 4 tiers consist of setting up strategically,running or business product assessment, process definition and style and design and the technological business enterprise investigation.

Levels:

There are at minimum 4 tiers of enterprise examination:

  1. Planning Strategically
  2. The evaluation of the organization’s strategic business enterprise requires of the firm
  3. Running/Company Design Analysis
  4. The BA definitions and analyzes the organization’s procedures and sector enterprise strategies
  5. Course of action Definition and Structure
  6. In this amount tier refers to the organization course of action modeling (normally formulated as a result of process modeling and layout)
  7. IT/Technical Organization Evaluation
  8. The BA helps in the interpretation of small business principles and specifications for technical process

As you can see, there are a range of features which recognize the purpose of the Company Analyst including:

  • The analyst works with the business to understand options for enhancement in small business achievements and strategies.
  • The analyst is concerned in the layout or modification of business enterprise techniques or IT methods.
  • The analyst interacts with the enterprise stakeholders and subject subject industry experts in order to understand their issues and requires.
  • The analyst gathers, paperwork, and analyzes business enterprise demands and demands.
  • The analyst solved business enterprise complications and, as required, types specialized methods.
  • The analyst documents the purposeful and, occasionally, complex design of the process.
  • The analyst interacts with process architects and builders to assure technique is properly executed.
  • The analyst may well enable take a look at the procedure and create process documentation and consumer manuals.

Different DESCRIPTIONS

We proposes the pursuing definition of a business analyst: “An interior consultancy position that has responsibility for inspecting market buildings, identifying options for humanizing enterprise systems and correlating the wants of the small business with the use of IT.” The Intercontinental Institute of Business Analysis (IIBA) describes the purpose as: “a liaison between stakeholders in buy to recognize the composition, policies, and operations of an group, and to endorse alternatives that enable the group to attain its goals.” The Qualified Software package Organization Analyst (CSBA) Widespread Physique of Understanding defines this as: “uniquely positioned in the business to present a powerful url between the Business Neighborhood and Details Technological know-how (IT).”

The job of Company Analyst has developed from somebody who was a element of the organization operation and labored with Facts Technology to make improvements to the good quality of the merchandise and companies remaining shipped by the IT organization to an individual who aside from collecting Enterprise Necessities, also assists in Integration and Acceptance Testing, supports the enhancement of teaching and implementation material, participates in the implementation, and supplies submit-implementation help. Organization Analysts nowadays are also concerned in the enhancement of challenge programs and often deliver challenge management competencies when these competencies are not available in other venture members.



Supply by Preeti D G

Top rated 5 Tech Gadgets For On the net Students

Accredited online faculties continue on to maximize in level of popularity as an alternative to campus-based education and learning. We evaluated length understanding developments and crafted a list of technological requirements for on-line pupils.

1. mLearning Units

mLearning is the means to link and find out by means of the use of mobile units and is normally associated with length understanding because of their portability and advantage. mLearning is a fast-growing trend that creates a customized understanding expertise with instant connectivity.

BlackBoard has responded to this pattern with the start of its Cell Central series of programs. Studying establishments can customise the cellular content to supply their college students on-the-go education. Programs incorporate: system catalogs, on the internet library guide catalog, university maps and school directories. Cell Central only runs on Blackberry, Apple iphone and iPod Touch devices.

2. External Difficult Drives

Since on the web courses intensely benefit from videoconferencing and pc-based mostly educating apps, pupils earning on-line levels must be well prepared to responsibly deal with their computer’s storage house.

The storage of course notes, assignments and shows will finally eat absent at your computer’s capacity. Investing in an external really hard travel makes it possible for you to securely back up essential data files onto a different drive that can disconnect from your laptop or computer. For most exterior tricky drives it is really as basic as plugging in a USB twine. If you require to get the job done on one more personal computer you only hook up your difficult travel and obtain the saved paperwork. Also, if you share a computer with loved ones or roommates, this allows you to preserve essential details harmless with confined entry.

3. Office Chair

A regular entire-time, on campus university student attends 12 to 18 hours of lectures for every 7 days. This range is comparable for on the web learners, but in a virtual atmosphere instead of a classroom. When you include up the time put in on assignments, a sizeable part of your working day is used on your personal computer and at your desk.

Spend in an place of work chair that focuses on ergonomics. The Eurotech 24/7 was made for several hours of everyday use. Some of its college student-pleasant attributes include: constructed-in lumbar support, tilt stress command and a waterfall seat for comfort. Just never get much too relaxed your educational concentration ought to be best priority over afternoon naps.

4. Headphones

As we’ve pointed out, on-line colleges have to have a significant amount of money of hrs per 7 days in entrance of the laptop. When speakers are an solution, there are frequently times when headphones are your very best wager (late at night when some others are sleeping, touring, etcetera.). Our guidance? Go with the Bose In-Ear Headphones. These earpieces attribute ultra-relaxed tips that rest in the bowls of the ear (in its place of the canal) and are ideal for extended use all through online lectures, project conversations, and many others.

5. Memory and Retention Game titles

Memory and retention rates of college students enrolled in accredited on the net classes compared to campus-centered college students carry on to be a closely debated matter. While some institutions argue that there are no quantitative techniques that deliver important evaluation results, many others have executed reports with, what they contemplate to be, valid conclusions. In their 2009 winter season issue, the OJDLA uncovered distance learners to have a 20% decreased retention fee than their regular counterparts.

What much better way to establish your retention charge than via an thrilling video game structure? The Simon Trickster Handheld Version is the fantastic alternative. Simon has four colors that light up in a sequence with a distinctive tone assigned to every coloration. Immediately after Simon chooses a colour sequence, the person is demanded to repeat the sequence by pressing the acceptable color. This variation is also transportable and allows you to take benefit of down time or when you are traveling.



Resource by Jonathan Agner