Computer Forensics, or Digital Forensics to give it another name, is something that in today’s fast moving environment has become as much part of policing as walking the beat or patrolling or the mobile unit.
As technology progresses and it does so extremely quickly these days, so to do the ways in which technology is applied to crime and its uses by the criminal. Whereas in the past when crime was much more straightforward and involved a physical presence, Computer Crime requires, in some instances, nothing more than a computer, access to the internet, and the personal information of an unwitting individual.
As this type of computer criminal becomes more and more common so too does the need for experts in the field of Computer Forensics Analysis. However in the United Kingdom at the present time there is a shortage of trained professionals in this field which leaves the computer criminal at a distinct advantage.
Computer Forensics is used in a variety of different ways and not simply as a means of producing an auditable trail of data. A Computer Forensics Analysis of a laptop or desktop machine can provide valuable information as to not only how the machine was used to perpetrate a crime, but also who used the machine to commit the crime.
As individuals we all have certain ways of typing and committing words to a page and this is all very much part and parcel of the Computer Forensics Experts job, identifying these common traits and using them to help produce a profile.
The role of Computer Forensics Analysis in a court case is vitally important especially if that case pertains to the use of computers as a means to defraud money or in the distribution of materials deemed illegal such as pornography and child pornography. An expert Computer Witness will be able to provide such analysis to members of the jury, the judge, and the defense and prosecution teams in a way that is both informative and yet easily enough understood so as not to muddy the waters.
Such a witness is invaluable in both the prosecution and defense of a case and can be utilised to provide expert Computer Forensic Analysis and also provide the jury, who are not necessarily familiar with such terms, with easily digestible and retainable information.
Indeed an expert witness may also be able to physically demonstrate to the court just how a criminal has managed to perpetrate a crime especially if this crime is committed over a distance.
As touched upon earlier there is a shortage of such personnel in the United Kingdom at the present time and this is in no small part due to the face that computer crime is on the increase and becoming more sophisticated. Such trained personnel are invaluable to a case and are fully conversant with ACPO (Association of Chief Police Officers) guidelines.
With such a shortage of trained personnel it is fair to say that the floodgates have been opened for the Computer Criminal. He, she or they (it is often common to find such individuals working in cells using complex networks and IT infrastructures) are more likely to evade a thorough investigation and subsequent prosecution without the assistance of trained Computer Expert Witnesses and their informed analysis.
These trained personnel are often in short supply because of the need for more than one discipline when it comes to Computer Forensics Analysis.
Network Forensics is often such that an Computer Forensics Expert will be required to examine the data on a large number of computers either networked together physically (hard-wired) or operating as satellites as part of a Wi-Fi network. This particular type of auditing is particularly useful and often provides vital information in the prosecution of computer crime especially when it is necessary to link together a number of individuals spread over a large geographical area.
It is important to remember also that the analysis provided by a Computer Expert Witness is not only used to help in the prosecution or defense of a case at a judicial level but also can be used in helping to identify and prevent further instances of Computer Crime. Moreover this is something that has, and will have, an impact when it comes to fighting e-crime in the future as the e-criminals and their methods become more sophisticated and harder to track.
Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) combine two powerful techniques in order to provide the identification of compounds that have low detection limits and potential required for quantitative analysis. Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry analyses works on liquids, solid and gaseous samples but are primarily restricted to semi volatile and volatile compounds.
Under Gas Chromatography, a sample is carried and volatilized and carried by the inter gases through a coated glass Capillary Column. The stationary phase is joined to the interior of the column and the amount of time it takes a specific compound of an element to pass through this column on to a detector is called its “Retention Time”. These measurements are used for identification purpose when compared to references.
Under usual Mass Spectrometry or MS step under the Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry, the compounds leaving the GC columns are fragmented by the electron impact. These charged fragments are detected gradually and the subsequent spectrum obtained is used to identify the molecules. Fragmentation patterns are reproducible and thus, can be used to create quantitative measurements.
Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry analysis is performed on gases, solids and liquids. For gases and liquids, the samples are usually injected directly into the Gas Chromatogram. For the solid elements, the analysis is carried our through outgrassing or desorption, solvent extraction or pyrolysis. Desorption experiment is performed under the flow of helium gas at controlled temperature ranging between 40 to 300 degree Celsius. The analytes are then collected on a Cryogenic trap during desorption process. The sample chamber is a 1.25″x4″ cylinder.
Pyrolysis is yet another sampling technique used for the analysis of materials that are impossible to be directly injected into Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry. Under this process, heat is directly applied to the sample that results in breaking down of the molecules in a reproducible way. These smaller molecules are then introduced in the Gas Chromatogram and analyzed by the GC-MS. By this method, probe temperatures of up to 1400ºC can be used.
Several other sampling methods and sample preparation are available such as static headspace analysis, derivatization, purge and trap, Solid Phase Microextraction etc. having applications based on species of interests and sample types.
- Identification of organic components through separating complex mixtures
- Quantitative analysis
- Trace determination of organic contamination (low to mid-ppb level for liquid matrices and low nanogram level for solid matrices?
- Identifying and quantifying volatile organic compounds in mixtures
- Outgassing studies
- Testing for residual solvents
- Evaluating contaminants on semiconductor wafers or other technology products (thermal desorption)
- Identifying trace impurities in liquids or gases
Limitations of Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry
- Non-volatile matrices (wafers, metal parts oil, etc.) require additional prep (extraction, outgassing, etc.)
- Evaluating extracts from plastics
- Target compounds must either be volatile or capable of derivatization
- Atmospheric gases are challenging (CO2, N2, O2, Ar, CO, H2O)
GC MS has long been considered to be the Gold Standard for all sorts of analytical laboratories. It is a strong analytical tool that uses time for the chemical elements to travel through the GC column, the retention time as compared to known standards to identify the chemical. It is a good technique for simple mixtures and for situations where the chemicals of concern are known and calibrated before running samples. Though there are advantages and disadvantages of all the process but together these factors are helpful in evolution and advancement of laboratory processes and identification of elements.
In accordance to Dictionary.com internet site a Organization Analyst (BA) assess the organization and style of businesses, governing administration departments, and non-revenue companies. BAs also examine small business models and their integration with technological innovation.
Essentially, the obligations and activities performed by a small business analyst are different, but the most considerable goal is generally to progress the interaction concerning the stakeholders and the undertaking builders. Company analysts come to be far more productive when they have undergone ideal prerequisites schooling that educate them how to grow to be effective communicators and how to obtain and generate the prerequisites of the stakeholders.
Company analysis has 4 tiers. These 4 tiers consist of setting up strategically,running or business product assessment, process definition and style and design and the technological business enterprise investigation.
There are at minimum 4 tiers of enterprise examination:
- Planning Strategically
- The evaluation of the organization’s strategic business enterprise requires of the firm
- Running/Company Design Analysis
- The BA definitions and analyzes the organization’s procedures and sector enterprise strategies
- Course of action Definition and Structure
- In this amount tier refers to the organization course of action modeling (normally formulated as a result of process modeling and layout)
- IT/Technical Organization Evaluation
- The BA helps in the interpretation of small business principles and specifications for technical process
As you can see, there are a range of features which recognize the purpose of the Company Analyst including:
- The analyst works with the business to understand options for enhancement in small business achievements and strategies.
- The analyst is concerned in the layout or modification of business enterprise techniques or IT methods.
- The analyst interacts with the enterprise stakeholders and subject subject industry experts in order to understand their issues and requires.
- The analyst gathers, paperwork, and analyzes business enterprise demands and demands.
- The analyst solved business enterprise complications and, as required, types specialized methods.
- The analyst documents the purposeful and, occasionally, complex design of the process.
- The analyst interacts with process architects and builders to assure technique is properly executed.
- The analyst may well enable take a look at the procedure and create process documentation and consumer manuals.
We proposes the pursuing definition of a business analyst: “An interior consultancy position that has responsibility for inspecting market buildings, identifying options for humanizing enterprise systems and correlating the wants of the small business with the use of IT.” The Intercontinental Institute of Business Analysis (IIBA) describes the purpose as: “a liaison between stakeholders in buy to recognize the composition, policies, and operations of an group, and to endorse alternatives that enable the group to attain its goals.” The Qualified Software package Organization Analyst (CSBA) Widespread Physique of Understanding defines this as: “uniquely positioned in the business to present a powerful url between the Business Neighborhood and Details Technological know-how (IT).”
The job of Company Analyst has developed from somebody who was a element of the organization operation and labored with Facts Technology to make improvements to the good quality of the merchandise and companies remaining shipped by the IT organization to an individual who aside from collecting Enterprise Necessities, also assists in Integration and Acceptance Testing, supports the enhancement of teaching and implementation material, participates in the implementation, and supplies submit-implementation help. Organization Analysts nowadays are also concerned in the enhancement of challenge programs and often deliver challenge management competencies when these competencies are not available in other venture members.
Accredited online faculties continue on to maximize in level of popularity as an alternative to campus-based education and learning. We evaluated length understanding developments and crafted a list of technological requirements for on-line pupils.
1. mLearning Units
mLearning is the means to link and find out by means of the use of mobile units and is normally associated with length understanding because of their portability and advantage. mLearning is a fast-growing trend that creates a customized understanding expertise with instant connectivity.
BlackBoard has responded to this pattern with the start of its Cell Central series of programs. Studying establishments can customise the cellular content to supply their college students on-the-go education. Programs incorporate: system catalogs, on the internet library guide catalog, university maps and school directories. Cell Central only runs on Blackberry, Apple iphone and iPod Touch devices.
2. External Difficult Drives
Since on the web courses intensely benefit from videoconferencing and pc-based mostly educating apps, pupils earning on-line levels must be well prepared to responsibly deal with their computer’s storage house.
The storage of course notes, assignments and shows will finally eat absent at your computer’s capacity. Investing in an external really hard travel makes it possible for you to securely back up essential data files onto a different drive that can disconnect from your laptop or computer. For most exterior tricky drives it is really as basic as plugging in a USB twine. If you require to get the job done on one more personal computer you only hook up your difficult travel and obtain the saved paperwork. Also, if you share a computer with loved ones or roommates, this allows you to preserve essential details harmless with confined entry.
3. Office Chair
A regular entire-time, on campus university student attends 12 to 18 hours of lectures for every 7 days. This range is comparable for on the web learners, but in a virtual atmosphere instead of a classroom. When you include up the time put in on assignments, a sizeable part of your working day is used on your personal computer and at your desk.
Spend in an place of work chair that focuses on ergonomics. The Eurotech 24/7 was made for several hours of everyday use. Some of its college student-pleasant attributes include: constructed-in lumbar support, tilt stress command and a waterfall seat for comfort. Just never get much too relaxed your educational concentration ought to be best priority over afternoon naps.
As we’ve pointed out, on-line colleges have to have a significant amount of money of hrs per 7 days in entrance of the laptop. When speakers are an solution, there are frequently times when headphones are your very best wager (late at night when some others are sleeping, touring, etcetera.). Our guidance? Go with the Bose In-Ear Headphones. These earpieces attribute ultra-relaxed tips that rest in the bowls of the ear (in its place of the canal) and are ideal for extended use all through online lectures, project conversations, and many others.
5. Memory and Retention Game titles
Memory and retention rates of college students enrolled in accredited on the net classes compared to campus-centered college students carry on to be a closely debated matter. While some institutions argue that there are no quantitative techniques that deliver important evaluation results, many others have executed reports with, what they contemplate to be, valid conclusions. In their 2009 winter season issue, the OJDLA uncovered distance learners to have a 20% decreased retention fee than their regular counterparts.
What much better way to establish your retention charge than via an thrilling video game structure? The Simon Trickster Handheld Version is the fantastic alternative. Simon has four colors that light up in a sequence with a distinctive tone assigned to every coloration. Immediately after Simon chooses a colour sequence, the person is demanded to repeat the sequence by pressing the acceptable color. This variation is also transportable and allows you to take benefit of down time or when you are traveling.
What is evaluation paralysis? What is the destructive effect of enduring assessment paralysis? “Analysis paralysis is “an informal phrase utilized to when the possibility price of selection examination exceeds the positive aspects”. It stems from self-sabotaging beliefs, which includes the pursuing:
– When I have collected this information and facts, located this actuality, or make this list a bit lengthier, then I will be all set to deal with this undertaking or undertaking, or make this transform.
– No make any difference what I endeavor, it will by no means be ‘good enough’ to meet my or others’ requirements or anticipations.
Analysis paralysis can take place, for illustration, when you choose that you want to make a merchandise or service offering that will clear up all of the world’s issues – i.e. it is superior, quicker, more affordable, and takes advantage of the hottest gizmos, instruments, technology, and buzzwords. Because carrying out this will be just about impossible, it will permit you to procrastinate creating a ultimate decision.
What are the top 7 brings about of assessment paralysis?
1. It is less difficult to do analysis than to apply your solution or remedy: it is safe and often profitable and hence self esteem boosting, while performing on the investigation is fraught with the risk of failure, pressure, or tension.
2. Deficiency of aims
3. Conflicting targets
4. Risk avoidance, worry of generating a mistake
5. Far too many studying curves at once, causing incessant revisiting of prior perform
6. Creative speculation, when discovery and definition are essential
7. Insistence on completing all analyses, in advance of planning your workshop, writing your marketing copy, and so forth.
What are the 12 damaging impacts of assessment paralysis?
1. You do the job and do the job, and see no solution or outcomes
2. You start off to reduce sight of why you ended up working in the to start with position
3. You miss out on the option to take dangers and get responses about the high quality of your operate
4. You meet less men and women, which include prospective clients, joint and referral companions, and suppliers
5. You attempt less new strategies and you, your small business and your profits as a result expand considerably less
6. You grow to be controlled by panic and disempowered
7. You become trapped by your difficulties and in your individual particular person ideas
8. You close up having to pay for this more than-analysis – in funds, power, time, well being, joy and achievement
9. The clients you are most effective suited to support do not get to satisfy you
10. Your private associations undergo
11. Your well being dwindles
12. Other occasions it can be ignorance: that you do not know that you could employ the service of a person else to do your drudgery perform
To stay clear of finding stuck in analysis paralysis, pick out a single or two of the seven ideas outlined below, and apply them for the next several months, right until they turn out to be internalized. While you are at it, appreciate the cha-lle-nge of going from examination paralysis to knowing your business’ vision!
Leading 7 guidelines of how to not eliminate sight of, and comprehend your small business eyesight
1. Do adequate investigation and investigation to know how to establish your a variety of ideas: i.e. money, business enterprise, promoting, referral, repeat business, and so forth. For instance, marketplace investigation would entail discovering out regardless of whether individuals want to obtain the support or product or service you want to market, and the rate they are inclined to fork out for it. Then halt the analysis. Make an educated decision about what you feel will do the job. Develop and put into practice the ideas, and tweak them as you see in shape.
2. Immediately determine out “why” you are not executing the work. That is, respond to the following: “I am concerned to…, and I scare myself by imagining that…” (E.G. boost my charges, make a choice about what solution to run with following, and many others.). Comprehend that you (not many others) are the types developing the dread! E.G. I want to boost my fees (or get started charging for my enterprise choices) but I scare myself by imagining that I will have no customers as a consequence. Then make the selection and/or do the get the job done.
3. Glance for the most straightforward option. That is, pick something you can do and do promptly, so that you can get on with the other matters you genuinely need to do. Then do that detail skillfully and effectively.
4. Challenge your internal critic (or skeptic) or gremlins, who hold telling you that you are not able to, you do not want to, you do not feel like it, you will fall short, you are not very good sufficient, and so on. Exhibit your mind that you are the manager, not it. This will raise your self-confidence radically, to the issue the place the small voice in your head will get ever more quieter and have minimal result on you.
5. Keep in mind that every thing is unpleasant at the starting. Having said that, if you stick with it, you will finally go through your Economic Soreness Zone and succeed. Then you will have turn out to be a “more substantial” particular person.
6. Acknowledge and enjoy your self unconditionally, for who you actually are.
7. Get into the practice of living in and outside of your enterprise rather of just surviving, or far more bluntly, dying. To obtain a fuller appreciation of how these text differ, refer to the 6 illustrations offered down below.
Case in point 1
Flourishing: You do your greatest and praise you for all of your endeavours.
Surviving: You do things only mainly because you imagine you require to, have to, or need to.
Thriving: You give up emotion responsible and stressing.
Surviving: You sense guilty or fear, for no rationale at all.
Thriving: You have confidence in that every thing will operate out fine.
Surviving: You question your self.
Case in point 4
Thriving: You request the individuals in your everyday living to assist you through hard periods and make clear how they could to this.
Surviving: You do not inquire for guidance when you have to have or want it.
Thriving: You are grateful for the excellent in your existence, and undertake an perspective that there is a lot to go all over.
Surviving: You want your life could be various, and still do absolutely nothing about it, besides to maintain the standing quo.
Thriving: You say “certainly” to you, like your artistic genius!
Surviving: You deny your creativity.
The Elephant Vanishes is Haruki Murakami’s 1st US released collection of short stories. It is made up of 15 small tales exhibiting his do the job at its best, from magical lands with dancing dwarves, large elephants, and a person looking for his cat. Each individual detail is uniquely Murakami even though, and every one one of these tales is deserving of your time to read, and some of them to browse the novel to which they are hooked up. In this article are some notes I jotted down while reading through the collection and some views on his operate as a full.
-Murakami utilizes a singular human feeling or emotion for every of his stories, then he expands and distorts, contracts, and expands that emotion to his pleasure. Use of loneliness, Hunger, and Tiredness come to thoughts.
-His principles on reality are really interesting. He is frequently allowing the figures recreate it for them selves, the way they want it. The presence of twin fact is dependable, wherein there lies a layer under real actuality that the character have to arrive to conditions with.
-He works by using the journal and memory as a common system. The narrator’s memory and how it is utilized is continuously introduced up and analyzed. His use of a journal repeats as a indicates of corporation and framework in the dynamic and chaotic lives of his protagonists, lending a a great deal far more structured method to their life
The Wind-up Hen and Tuesday’s Gals
The initial story was seriously odd. Primarily simply because it is not in fact a tale, but the to start with chapter of his most famous book, The Wind-Up Hen Chronicle. Soon after currently being unable to obtain the cat, he travels out into the blocked off alley to look and finishes up in the back again property of a young girl sunbathing, the place he falls asleep in a garden chair. A series of inappropriate cellular phone discussions with a stranger, and the unusual lady in the alley established up one of his greatest tales in that novel, but listed here are a minor out of position as all you get is the very first chapter. In common Murakami manner although, any chapter from any of his books could be read stand by yourself and make feeling, as very small tends to come about in the bodily actuality of his people. In its place, something additional that you sense far more than observe takes place below. It heartily establishes the tone for the relaxation of the guide, and sets up the reader for the oddities to arrive.
The 2nd Bakery Assault
The second story was odd far too, in its execution. The hunger curse is intriguing to me in that it appears to be the consequence of a more psychological problem. His wife is an inherently violent individual listed here and that does not seem to be to make considerably feeling. What intent is there to her violence? Why is she struck by the curse as nicely and why has he not felt this starvation usually since the time at the bakery. I imagine it may well be that he demands a companion to truly feel this hunger. His best friend was about the final time it took place, and then he still left. With no a conspirator it doesn’t make a difference how he feels. The hunger seems although, only 2 weeks following his relationship, and she takes up the make a difference really effectively. Her obvious knowledge on the subject is interesting while. It rouses suspicion in the narrator. Something that Murakami does in the 1st story as properly. A sort of fundamental suspicion from this person to his spouse.
The Kangaroo Communique
The 3rd tale was very neat to me. The way he begins it off, completely off subject, describing his 36 steps of even though–which we hardly ever actually get to hear–and then goes on, the many tangents in his conversation are excellent. The person operates a horribly uninteresting and depressing occupation and when he finds a gem in his pile of coal he grasps it with out abandon. He needs to chat to this girl. He wishes to get to know her. He goes on about his wish to be alive in double point out. He wants to exist in two locations at once. A desire to prevail over the monotony of his lifetime and still not abandon it at the exact time. He is worried of modify and this is his way of dealing with it, by not switching. Thus he information this letter to the woman and tells her factors that are possibly not acceptable. But they are his other self acting. The reclusive, division retail store self is put aside and this 2nd self, the self that wants to sleep with her and produce her this letter is introduced out without concern of consequence.
On Observing the 100% Fantastic Woman 1 Beautiful April Morning
This is yet another excellent story that I could not get about. It was brief and to the point, supplying no plot, or advancement. Just a incredibly amazing sequence of considered and a seed of question left in the reader as to what genuinely transpired. Murakami’s narrator sees a woman on the road that he appreciates is ideal for him. Does not know how or why, she just is. Appreciate at first sight. He would not do just about anything even though. Conjecture develops the finally tragic or eventually intimate story that exists beneath the surface area. If he had advised her his tale and they received with each other the reader is remaining contemplating how horribly romantic this is. Even so considering the fact that he would not speak to her, I’m remaining to question if this tale may possibly be genuine. How horribly unhappy that would be. This is a tale about prospects. About taking prospects in lifetime and earning the most of them. Not letting fate kick your ass. Two times the narrator leaves his 100% great female. Once in his story and when in genuine lifetime. She will never ever return to him
This is a quite exciting story. It tackles a bunch of diverse small factors about her life. She appears to be lost in a globe of her possess generation. Missing to the vanity of her husband’s relatives, she has shed every little thing in her existence that produced her her. When she stops sleeping she is denying reality to regain that aspect of her. She is likely from her fate that has been built and is generating a new actuality for herself. In performing so she have to confront death and in that finishes up assembly it. Her perceptions of actuality are skewed entirely. In this she creates a new 1. One exactly where she maintains her very own identification. Not the a person that her husband gave her. She is owning a mid-lifestyle disaster and her way of working with it is as this sort of.
The Fall of the Roman Empire, The 1881 Indian Rebellion, Hitler’s Invasion of Poland, and the Realm of Raging Winds
This piece makes use of critical functions to mark the narrator’s individual individual record. It follows a simple working day of situations for him and marks small usual functions as huge events with historic metaphor. It is really as if he is saying that one’s complete existence can be marked and remembered by important factors and phrases without all the particulars. A specific linearity to our lives exists that would make lifetime less complicated to remember.
The lederhosen act as a catalyst for her to have stepped back and see the environment and her lifestyle for what it was. She experienced to that issue crafted up an illusory planet that she lived in. She was unable to stage out of it and see how significantly she did not want. She was to ensconced in it to do so. When she finds the male that seems like her partner but is not, she is able to view what she has from an outsider POV. This is disturbing to her and mainly because of it she is ready to do the job by way of her thoughts and fail to remember about her husband.
This is a fairly awful very little tale. The person from Africa is either a assassin or a actually terrible individual that afraid her off. I lean toward the previous in the way he described how the barn was calling to be burned. The narrator’s closeness to the girl is crucial listed here due to the fact is counters the man’s statement of the barn needing to be burned. His entire notion is that the barn is previous and useless and it won’t damage any individual, but this very last barn is these kinds of that the narrator is the just one affected by it. Thus it was not harmless. He is not aware of the correlation even though and proceeds to seek out the barn and the lady. This major to the dual existence issue yet again in which he is striving to search for out the literal object that has not been burned and inside his brain seeks out the figurative object, the woman that he misses, that has been eradicated from his lifestyle. Really Poe like and very disturbing.
Very little Inexperienced Monster
She rebukes adore. In performing so, her each move, every single lousy assumed and sick way hurts the creature. Would seem like a metaphor for rejection. She rejects the creatures unrequited like and in so undertaking destroys him. She sees him only for what he is, a horribly hideous creature, ignoring his adore and tranquil way. She, as a substitute of figuring out what he wishes to say or how to get him to return to his home, destroys him, mercilessly. His enthusiasm attracts him into her house, unwanted, and due to the fact of that her malice is unleashed, nearly by reflex. The author would seem to be producing a assertion on gals right here and how unforgiving they can be for a man’s love. Also a assertion on the blindness of enjoy and how the male will react with no believed and not fat the selections associated.
This tale struck me as becoming pretty laced with subplots and concealed meanings. All of it was carried out in a pretty delicate fashion, accurate to Murakami’s type and it truly struck well, specially at the close, with its blunt, issue-of-point fashion of storytelling. To begin with, the narrator and his sister are just what he says, “partners”. Partners in living a pointless way of life. She has grown out of it however. In the 5 years they have lived alongside one another she has grown and created a feeling of responsibility and position in the globe. He having said that, is nonetheless trapped in his personal minor environment, his individual truth. This is demonstrated often by how he claims points that do not influence him really don’t problem him, these kinds of as who wins the baseball video game. It will not matter. “I am not actively playing, they are.” The discrepancies in the narrator and Noburo Watanabe are extensive. An important matter to position out at to start with, is the truth that Watanabe has a name at all. Quite few, if any people even get names in Murakami’s tales. This name is crucial in that it symbolizes a position in fact. His position in reality is marked by his title and he conforms through that identify. His sister will turn out to be a section of that truth when she will take this manes identify. So, as the representative of truth, Watanabe begins to ruin the narrator’s fantasy earth. In the stop of the tale, right after chatting to this gentleman and hearing how pathetic his life truly is, he very first feels the pointlessness of his everyday living. His night out with the female at the bar is depressing and that is the initially mark of the destruction of his fantasy, drawing him into Watanabe’s actuality.
You will find not substantially listed here that I could discern that the writer does not say straight out. So, I will just quotation the very last paragraph.
“Should really I have slept with her?
Which is the central issue of this piece.
The respond to is beyond me. Even now, I have no thought. There are lots of
matters we under no circumstances recognize, no make any difference how many yrs we set on, no subject how
a great deal practical experience we accumulate. All I can do is glance up from the train at the home windows in the buildings that could be hers. Every single a single of them could be her window, it often seems to me, and at other moments I think that none of them could be hers. There are only far too lots of of them.”
Daily life has several options. The basic position of her window is these types of that it could be everywhere, or perhaps even nowhere at all.
Motive 1: You Are Ready To Track Your Health and fitness General performance Each and every Day!
The very first purpose that a health tracker will strengthen your conditioning is that you can keep track of your targets way much more straightforward. Toss absent any pen and paper! Documenting your aims and information was by no means simpler. And you are a lot more enthusiastic to go out to go to the fitness center – paperless! Of system this is a great motive to use a health and fitness tracker but not the finest. Be sure to study on!
Purpose 2: A Physical fitness Tracker Motivates You To Go Functioning Extra Generally than any other Exercise Gadget
Some trackers assistance that your info will be stored in the cloud by syncing your gadget with your mobile cellular phone. There are a good deal social communities in which – after you have put your data on the internet – you can clearly show and share your new health and fitness information. Typically you even will be honored when you attain a new conditioning purpose. And when you see the targets that your mates have currently realized it can make it even a lot more competitive for you. It will motivate you to achieve increased and better goals, way too. On top of that, if you depart out your work out it will be recognized by your mates and they will pretty probably remark that. So just because you never want your followers to be disappointed, you will consistently be determined to do your exercise sessions.
Explanation 3: Your Action Tracker Will Notify You When It Is Required For You To Boost Your Existing Action
At times you will ignore that you have to do your each day exercise routine. Many trackers you can acquire are programmed to remind you that you have to access your objective. Some give you even a tiny electric powered shock if you really don’t arrive at your day-to-day health goal. Now this is a serious motivator!
Explanation 4: Your Action Gadget Will Even Keep track of Your Snooze!
Fitness tracker can also file your slumber – if you like to. Some health and fitness bands then use the full gathered information of a unique interval and determine the perfect unique time for you to go to rest. Consider your fitness tracker to advise you to go to mattress 20 minutes earlier so that you will be equipped to shift roughly 500 ways much more at the future day.
Rationale 5: It Is Attainable To Track Your Crucial Indicators With A Fitness Tracker
Not only for youthful individuals it is very excellent to keep track of vital very important signs by sporting the exercise tracker. Also for older people with health difficulties this could be handy. The collected info could possibly at times be accessed by your physician for his analysis.
The following is a brief description of the two companies:
It all began in the year 1938 when two electrical engineering graduates from Stanford University called William Hewlett and David Packard started their business in a garage in Palo Alto. In a year’s time, the partnership called Hewlett-Packard was made and by the year 1947, HP was incorporated. The company has been prospering ever since as its profits grew from five and half million dollars in 1951 to about 3 billion dollars in 1981. The pace of growth knew no bounds as HP’s net revenue went up to 42 billion dollars in 1997. Starting with manufacturing audio oscillators, the company made its first computer in the year 1966 and it was by 1972 that it introduced the concept of personal computing by a calculator first which was further advanced into a personal computer in the year 1980. The company is also known for the laser-printer which it introduced in the year 1985.
The company is better known as Compaq Computer Corporation. This was company that started itself as a personal computer company in the year 1982. It had the charm of being called the largest manufacturers of personal computing devices worldwide. The company was formed by two senior managers at Texas Instruments. The name of the company had come from-“Compatibility and Quality”. The company introduced its first computer in the year 1983 after at a price of 2995 dollars. In spite of being portable, the problem with the computer was that it seemed to be a suitcase. Nevertheless, there were huge commercial benefits from the computer as it sold more than 53,000 units in the first year with a revenue generation of 111 million dollars.
Reasons for the Merger
A very simple question that arises here is that, if HP was progressing at such a tremendous pace, what was the reason that the company had to merge with Compaq? Carly Fiorina, who became the CEO of HP in the year 1999, had a key role to play in the merger that took place in 2001. She was the first woman to have taken over as CEO of such a big company and the first outsider too. She worked very efficiently as she travelled more than 250,000 miles in the first year as a CEO. Her basic aim was to modernize the culture of operation of HP. She laid great emphasis on the profitable sides of the business. This shows that she was very extravagant in her approach as a CEO. In spite of the growth in the market value of HP’s share from 54.43 to 74.48 dollars, the company was still inefficient. This was because it could not meet the targets due to a failure of both company and industry. HP was forced to cut down on jobs and also be eluded from the privilege of having Price Water House Cooper’s to take care of its audit. So, even the job of Fiorina was under threat. This meant that improvement in the internal strategies of the company was not going to be sufficient for the company’s success. Ultimately, the company had to certainly plan out something different. So, it was decided that the company would be acquiring Compaq in a stock transaction whose net worth was 25 billion dollars. Initially, this merger was not planned. It started with a telephonic conversation between CEO HP, Fiorina and Chairman and CEO Compaq, Capellas. The idea behind the conversation was to discuss on a licensing agreement but it continued as a discussion on competitive strategy and finally a merger. It took two months for further studies and by September, 2001, the boards of the two companies approved of the merger. In spite of the decision coming from the CEO of HP, the merger was strongly opposed in the company. The two CEOs believed that the only way to fight the growing competition in terms of prices was to have a merger. But the investors and the other stakeholders thought that the company would never be able to have the loyalty of the Compaq customers, if products are sold with an HP logo on it. Other than this, there were questions on the synchronization of the organization’s members with each other. This was because of the change in the organization culture as well. Even though these were supposed to serious problems with respect to the merger, the CEO of HP, Fiorina justified the same with the fact that the merger would remove one serious competitor in the over-supplied PC market of those days. She said that the market share of the company is bound to increase with the merger and also the working unit would double. (Hoopes, 2001)
Advantages of the Merger
Even though it seemed to be advantageous to very few people in the beginning, it was the strong determination of Fiorina that she was able to stand by her decision. Wall Street and all her investors had gone against the company lampooning her ideas with the saying that she has made 1+1=1.5 by her extravagant ways of expansion. Fiorina had put it this way that after the company’s merger, not only would it have a larger share in the market but also the units of production would double. This would mean that the company would grow tremendously in volume. Her dream of competing with the giants in the field, IBM would also come true. She was of the view that much of the redundancy in the two companies would decrease as the internal costs on promotion, marketing and shipping would come down with the merger. This would produce the slightest harm to the collection of revenue. She used the ideas of competitive positioning to justify her plans of the merger. She said that the merger is based on the ideologies of consolidation and not on diversification. She could also defend allegations against the change in the HP was. She was of the view that the HP has always encouraged changes as it is about innovating and taking bold steps. She said that the company requires being consistent with creativity, improvement and modification. This merger had the capability of providing exactly the same. (Mergers and Acquisitions, 2010)
Advantages to the Shareholders
The following are the ways in which the company can be advantageous to its shareholders:
Unique Opportunity: The position of the enterprise is bound to better with the merger. The reason for the same was that now the value creation would be fresh, leadership qualities would improve, capabilities would improve and so would the sales and also the company’s strategic differentiation would be better than the existing competitors. Other than this, one can also access the capabilities of Compaq directly hence reducing the cost structure in becoming the largest in the industry. Finally, one could also see an opportunity in reinvesting.
Stronger Company: The profitability is bound to increase in the enterprise, access and services sectors in high degrees. The company can also see a better opportunity in its research and development. The financial conditions of the company with respect to its EBIT and net cash are also on the incremental side.
Compelling Economics: The expected accumulation in IIP gains would be 13% in the first financial year. The company could also conduct a better segmentation of the market to forecast its revenues generation. This would go to as much as 2 and a half billion dollars of annual synergy.
Ability to Execute: As there would be integration in the planning procedures of the company, the chances of value creation would also be huge. Along with that the experience of leading a diversified employee structure would also be there. (HP to buy Compaq, 2001)
Opposition to the Merger
In fact, it was only CEO Fiorina who was in favor of going with the merger. This is a practical application of Agency problem that arises because of change in financial strategies of the company owners and the management. Fiorina was certain to lose her job if the merger didn’t take effect. The reason was that HP was not able to meet the demand targets under her leadership. But the owners were against the merger due to the following beliefs of the owners:
The new portfolio would be less preferable: The position of the company as a larger supplier of PCs would certainly increase the amount of risk and involve a lot of investment as well. Another important reason in this context is that HP’s prime interest in Imaging and Printing would not exist anymore as a result diluting the interest of the stockholders. In fact the company owners also feel that there would be a lower margin and ROI (return on investment).
Strategic Problems would remain Unsolved: The market position in high-end servers and services would still remain in spite of the merger. The price of the PCS would not come down to be affordable by all. The requisite change in material for imaging and printing also would not exist. This merger would have no effect on the low end servers as Dell would be there in the lead and high-end servers either where IBM and Sun would have the lead. The company would also be eluded from the advantages of outsourcing because of the surplus labor it would have. So, the quality is not guaranteed to improve. Finally, the merger would not equal IBM under any condition as thought by Fiorina.
Huge Integrated Risks: There have been no examples of success with such huge mergers. Generally when the market doesn’t support such mergers, don’t do well as is the case here. When HP could not manage its organization properly, integration would only add on to the difficulties. It would be even more difficult under the conditions because of the existing competitions between HP and Compaq. Being prone to such risky conditions, the company would also have to vary its costs causing greater trouble for the owner. The biggest factor of all is that to integrate the culture existing in the two companies would be a very difficult job.
Financial Impact: This is mostly because the market reactions are negative. On the other hand, the position of Compaq was totally different from HP. As the company would have a greater contribution to the revenue and HP being diluted at the same time, the problems are bound to develop. This would mean that drawing money from the equity market would also be difficult for HP. In fact this might not seem to be a very profitable merger for Compaq as well in the future.
The basic problem that the owners of the company had with this merger was that it would hamper the core values of HP. They felt that it is better to preserve wealth rather than to risk it with extravagant risk taking. This high risk profile of Fiorina was a little unacceptable for the owners of the company in light of its prospects.
So, as far as this merger between HP and Compaq is concerned, on side there was this strong determination of the CEO, Fiorina and on the other side was the strong opposition from the company owners. This opposition continued from the market including all the investors of the company. So, this practical Agency problem was very famous considering the fact that it contained two of the most powerful hardware companies in the world. There were a number of options like Change Management, Economic wise Management, and Organizational Management which could be considered to analyze the issue. But this case study can be solved best by a strategy wise analysis. (HP-Compaq merger faces stiff opposition from shareholders stock prices fall again, 2001)
Strategic Analysis of the Case
A CEO will always consider such a merger to be an occasion to take a competitive advantage over its rivals like IBM as in this case and also be of some interest to the shareholders as well. The following are the strategies that are related to this merger between HP and Compaq:
* Having an eye over shareholders’ value: If one sees this merger from the eyes of Fiorina, it would be certain that the shareholders have a lot to gain from it. The reason for the same is the increment in the control of the market. So, even of the conditions were not suitable from the financial perspective, this truth would certainly make a lot of profits for the company in the future.
* Development of Markets: Two organizations get involved in mergers as they want to expand their market both on the domestic and the international level. Integration with a domestic company doesn’t need much effort but when a company merges internationally as in this case, a challenging task is on head. A thorough situation scanning is significant before putting your feet in International arena. Here, the competitor for HP was Compaq to a large degree, so this merger certainly required a lot of thinking. Organizations merge with the international companies in order to set up their brands first and let people know about what they are capable of and also what they eye in the future. This is the reason that after this merger the products of Compaq would also have the logo of HP. Once the market is well-known, then HP would not have to suffer the branding created by Compaq. They would be able to draw all the customers of Compaq as well.
* Propagated Efficiencies: Any company by acquiring another or by merging makes an attempt to add to its efficiencies by increasing the operations and also having control over it to the maximum extent. We can see that HP would now have an increased set of employees. The only factor is that they would have to be controlled properly as they are of different organizational cultures. (Benefits of Mergers:, 2010)
* Allowances to use more resources: An improvised organization of monetary resources, intellectual capital and raw materials offers a competitive advantage to the companies. When such companies merge, many of the intellects come together and work towards a common mission to excel with financial profits to the company. Here, one can’t deny the fact that even the top brains of Compaq would be taking part in forming the strategies of the company in the future.
* Management of risks: If we particularly take an example of this case, HP and Compaq entering into this merger can decrease the risk level they would have diversified business opportunities. The options for making choice of the supply chain also increase. Now even though HP is a pioneer in inkjet orienting, it would not have to use the Product based Facility layout which is more expensive. It can manage the risk of taking process based facility layout and make things cheaper. Manufacturing and Processing can now be done in various nations according to the cost viability as the major issue.
* Listing potential: Even though Wall Street and all the investors of the company are against the merger, when IPOs are offered, a development will definitely be there because of the flourishing earnings and turnover value which HP would be making with this merger.
* Necessary political regulations: When organizations take a leap into other nations, they need to consider the different regulations in that country which administer the policies of the place. As HP is already a pioneer in all the countries that Compaq used to do its business, this would not be of much difficulty for the company. The company would only need to make certain minor regulations with the political parties of some countries where Compaq was flourishing more than HP.
* Better Opportunities: When companies merge with another company, later they can put up for sale as per as the needs of the company. This could also be done partially. If HP feels that it would not need much of warehouse space it can sell the same at increased profits. It depends on whether the company would now be regarded a s a make to stock or a make to order company.
* Extra products, services, and facilities: Services get copyrights which enhances the level of trade. Additional Warehouse services and distribution channels offer business values. Here HP can use all such values integrated with Compaq so as to increase its prospects. (Berry, 2010)
There are a number of mergers and acquisitions that fail before they actually start to function. In the critical phase of implementation itself, the companies come to know that it would not be beneficial if they continue as a merger. This can occur in this merger between HP and Compaq due to the following reasons.
Conversations are not implemented: Because of unlike cultures, ambitions and risk profiles; many of the deals are cancelled. As per as the reactions of the owners of HP, this seems to be extremely likely. So, motivation amongst the employees is an extremely important consideration in this case. This requires an extra effort by the CEO, Fiorina. This could also help her maintain her position in the company.
Legal Contemplations: Anti-competitive deals are often limited by the rules presiding over the competition rules in a country. This leads to out of order functioning of one company and they try to separate from each other. A lot of unnecessary marketing failures get attached to these conditions. If this happens in this case, then all that money which went in publicizing the venture would go to be a waste. Moreover, even more would be required to re-promote as a single entity. Even the packaging where the entire inventory from Compaq had the logo of HP would have to be re-done, thus hampering the finance even further. (Broc Romanek, 2002)
Compatibility problems: Every company runs on different platforms and ideas. Compatibility problems often occur because of synchronization issues. In IT companies such as HP and Compaq, many problems can take place because both the companies have worked on different strategies in the past. Now, it might not seem necessary for the HP management to make changes as per as those from Compaq. Thus such problems have become of greatest concern these days.
Fiscal catastrophes: Both the companies after signing an agreement hope to have some return on the money they have put in to make this merger happen and also desire profitability and turnovers. If due to any reason, they are not able to attain that position, then they develop a abhorrence sense towards each other and also start charging each other for the failure.
Human Resource Differences: Problems as a result of cultural dissimilarities, hospitality and hostility issues, and also other behavior related issues can take apart the origin of the merger.
Lack of Determination: When organizations involve, they have plans in their minds, they have a vision set; but because of a variety of problems as mentioned above, development of the combined company to accomplish its mission is delayed. Merged companies set the goal and when the goal is not accomplished due to some faults of any of the two; then both of them develop a certain degree of hatred for each other. Also clashes can occur because of bias reactions. (William, 2008)
Risk management failure: Companies that are involved in mergers and acquisitions, become over confident that they are going to make a profit out of this decision. This can be seen as with Fiorina. In fact she can fight the whole world for that. When their self-confidence turns out into over-confidence then they fail. Adequate risk management methods should be adopted which would take care of the effects if the decision takes a downturn. These risk policies should rule fiscal, productions, marketing, manufacturing, and inventory and HR risks associated with the merger.
Hp and Compaq would now have common channels as far as their buying is concerned. So, the benefits in this concern is that even for those materials which were initially of high cost for HP would now be available at a cheaper price. The end users are also likely to increase. Now, the company can re frame its competitive strategy where the greatest concern can be given to all time rivals IBM. The advantages of this merger in the field of marketing can be seen in the case of shared branding, sales and service. Even the distribution procedure is likely to be enhanced with Compaq playing its part. Now, the company can look forward to cross selling, subsidization and also a reduced cost.
The foremost advantage in this area is that in the location of raw material. Even the processing style would be same making the products and services synchronized with the ideas and also in making a decent operational strategy. As the philosophical and mechanical control would also be in common, the operational strategy would now be to become the top most in the market. In this respect, the two companies would now have co-production, design and also location of staff. So, the operational strategy of HP would now be to use the process based facility layout and function with the mentioned shared values.
The technical strategy of the company can also be designed in common now. There is a disadvantage from the perspective of the differentiation that HP had in the field of inkjet printers but the advantages are also plentiful. With a common product and process technology, the technological strategy of the merged company would promote highly economical functioning. This can be done through a common research and development and designing team.
The buying strategy of the company would also follow a common mechanism. Here, the raw materials, machinery, and power would be common hence decreasing the cost once again. This can be done through a centralized mechanism with a lead purchaser keeping common policies in mind. Now Hp would have to think with a similar attitude for both inkjet printers as well as personal computers. This is because the parameters for manufacturing would also run on equal grounds.
This is the most important part of the strategies that would be made after the merger. The companies would have common shareholders for providing the requisite infrastructure. The capital source, management style, and legislation would also be in common. So, the infrastructure strategies would have to take these things into account. This can be done by having a common accounting system. HP does have an option to have a separate accounting system for the products that it manufactures but that would only arouse an internal competition. So, the infrastructural benefits can be made through a common accounting, legal and human resource system. This would ensure that the investment relations of the company would improve. None of the Compaq investors would hesitate in making an investment if HP follows a common strategy.
HP would now have to ensure another fact that with this merger they would be able to prove competitors to the present target and those of competitors like IBM as well. Even the operations and the output market needs to be above what exists at present. The company needs to ensure that the corporate strategy that it uses is efficient enough to help such a future. The degree of diversification needs to be managed thoroughly as well. This is because; the products from the two companies have performed exceptionally well in the past. So, the most optimum degree of diversification is required under the context so that the company is able to meet the demands of the customers. This has been challenged by the owners of HP but needs to be carried by the CEO Fiorina. (Bhattacharya, 2010)
As a Method Analytical Technological innovation (PAT) resource, the NIR (In the vicinity of Infrared) analyser is the up coming generation technology for analysing strong and liquid chemical and pharmaceutical formulations. The patented layout of NIR delivers superior analytical functionality with improved sensitivity and specific instrument matching to improve method advancement, lower implementation time and ensure seamless approach transferability.
In the vicinity of Infrared Examination is perfect for the swift non-destructive quantification of a lot of constituents-which includes protein, dampness and unwanted fat. NIR analyser actions each liquid and powder samples with out taking away the sampling or optical accessories. The detector utilized is a DTGC detector. When changing involving liquid and strong investigation, a straightforward manual lever is rotated to open up or near a shutter in between the side port and the top bench. Liquid samples are calculated in transmission with disposable 8 mm vials. Powder samples are calculated on the facet port accent in reflectance via disposable scintillation vials.
NIR analyser can be used throughout your production procedures-from raw material inspection and in process tests to closing item launch. It is a comparatively new technological know-how for refineries to observe key items, intermediate streams and unit feed. NIR analyser offered a reduced cost choice to standard fuel chromatographs or distillation analysers. Contrary to Fuel Chromatographs, NIR probes are 100% optical, use no electric power and have no going sections. Many properties can be measured with a single analyser head. NIR analyser is best to use in laboratories as perfectly as in plant environments.
For pharmaceutical and chemical industries, NIR investigation gives increased economic advantages, enhanced exams and investigation on the dock, in the lab and on the system line. NIR tests is fully risk-free and needs no sample preparation. No hazardous squander is created considering that NIR examination needs no solvents or reagents. It can lower the value of plan testing by extra than 50% relying on the application.
How to use it
Before tests, position the instrument on a horizontal, difficult and secure floor absent from daylight. The warming up time period is about 2 several hours. The user really should ensure that the temperature of the area the place the analyser is stored be 10 to 40 diploma C.
In close proximity to Infrared (NIR) analyser is utilised as a price-effective indicates of measuring item or method consistency and excellent manage parameter in natural and organic chemical-connected or food items industries.
Standard laboratory approaches are cumbersome, expensive and involve trained staff. These solutions are much too gradual to let ample response time for control of the process. Now, NIR analysers have replaced most of the conventional solutions. These analysers can be positioned immediately in the manufacturing area and can be operated by plant personnel. The examination time is fewer than one particular moment. This gets rid of person assessment on every constituent and will save manpower, instruction and time.
Chile has been historically isolated as a result of its geographical and economic characteristics, with roughly 98% of all its imports arriving via ports. However, in the past 30 years the country has undergone a massive change, finding itself now in the vanguard of the Free Market movement – being a world leader in the signing of Free Trade Accords – and shedding its former protectionist economic policies.
As a result Chile has been at the forefront with respect to many Latin American countries when it comes to globalization and accessing worldwide markets. This in turn, has led to Chile sustaining economic growth similar to other emerging economies.
As part of this opening of the country to foreign markets the Chilean government recently redistributed political power on a regional basis with the incorporation of two new regions, the Arica-Parinacota and Los Ríos. The idea behind the creation of these two new regions was to foment revenues in tourism, mining, agriculture and communications, while at the same time aiming to empower the regions and decentralize power from the capital. The new regions were approved Mar. 15, 2007 by President Michelle Bachelet.
The government’s policies have translated in strong economic growth, with the GDP in 2007 coming in at 5.2% versus 4% in 2006. On the downside, the country is feeling effects from the current global economic malaise, with unemployment hitting 7.2% in 2007. Strong economic growth has also led to a sharp rise in inflation, up from 2.6% in 2006 to 7.8% in 2007 on the back of higher petroleum prices and the ripple effect on food prices, coupled with adverse weather conditions.
It should be noted that Spain’s economy is also going through a rough batch, with unemployment hitting 9.6% for the first quarter of 2008 – the highest it’s been in three years – the third consecutive quarter of rising unemployment. This sharp increase in unemployment has even stoked concerns the Spanish government may run-out of funds to pay unemployment benefits in September.
Still – and despite the domestic nature of current Spanish press with respect to the collapse of its construction sector and rising unemployment – the general perception of Chile in Spain is one of a Latin American country that has undergone a rigorous economic policy that has led to its being considered as an emerging country with a relatively low country risk.
In a roundabout way Chile could benefit from a struggling Spanish economy – which has been built on EU subsidies and a booming construction sector – as many Spanish companies feel they must diversify and look outside their borders for growth. Of particular interest are Spanish construction companies which have been heavily diversifying in Spain into the energy sector. Spanish companies are particularly interested in projects in Latin America, Middle East, Eastern Europe and Asia.
In Spanish business circles it is commented that Chile’s economic stability – in sharp contrast to that experienced in other Latin American countries – has made the country attractive for investment. While mining remains a sector of interest, Spanish companies are also attracted to the banking, telecommunication and electricity sectors.
Despite the strong rise in Chile’s inflation, Spanish analysts see continued economic stability in that country, with sustained economic growth, albeit at lower rates than in previous years given the current global economic downturn.
In general, it is viewed, however, that growth will most likely come from Chile’s continued emphasis on exports and a drive to entice foreign investment. To further encourage foreign investments Chile must continue to ensure not only the liberalization of its markets and financial transparency, but seek to optimize its Free Trade agreements.
That said, it is often mentioned in Spain that the downside of Chile’s economic growth is that wealth is not being equally divided among the Chilean population. More concretely, the difference between Chile’s wealthy and its poor is becoming increasingly pronounced. In this age of corporate responsibility, and with its growing importance in the Spanish corporate world, such discrepancies in wealth distribution could come into play with respect to future investments, either in positive or negative light.
With respect to Trade, Chile exports more than it imports, with energy representing around 63% of Chile’s exports in 2006, while it only imported around 25% in the same period.
Those figures are misleading, however as Chile has limited domestic energy resources, with the country importing the majority of its energy needs. Chile has shown a reliance on natural gas exports, in particular those coming from Argentina. Since 2004 – when Argentina began restricting its natural gas exports – Chile has been revising its energy policy.
Outside of energy, Chile also exports significant agricultural goods (fruits and horticultures), representing around 20% of all exports in 2006, while it only imported 7% in this category for the same year. In 2006, manufacturing goods represented around 10% of all of Chile’s exports, while it imported close to 60% in the same category of goods.
Or in other terms, Chile’s export structure is basically divided equally between industrial (45%) and mining (45%) and the remaining 10% in agricultural goods.
Within the industrial products, the largest export items are cellulose, methanol and chemical products. Of increasing importance in the last decade are forest products, salmon and wine.
It should be mentioned that while Chile is attempting to diversify away from its dependence upon the semi-manufacturing of copper – a product that represented 60% of the country’s exports in the 1970s – to 35% in 2004, this product is still overly represented in the country’s export basket and the Trade Balance as a result of global demands and rising market prices for this commodity.
Copper exports in 2007 represented roughly 45% of the total exports on a Trade Balance basis.
Chile exported $1.3 billion to Spain in 2007, down slightly from almost $1.4 billion in 2006. By comparison, Chile exported $8.4 billion in 2007 to the United States, slightly down from $8.9 billion in 2006. With respect to imports, Chile received $845 million in goods from Spain in 2007, up from $708 million in 2006. With respect to the U.S., $7.3 billion of North American goods were imported in 2007, up sharply from the $5.6 billion Chile imported in 2006.
Despite Chile’s positive economic story, that news isn’t hitting Spain – in fact, news coverage of Chile in Spain is close to non-existent. As an example, when several Spanish businessmen were asked to mention a current article that they had read about Chile they couldn’t name one. Almost invariably the response had something to do with the Dictator Pinochet or the current president, Michelle Bachelet, who is seen as a something as a novelty, in line with Argentina’s Cristina Kirchner.
Other recent news items related to Chile include: reports a Nazi “Doctor of Death,” could be hiding in Chile; the closing of an investigation in the death of popular actor and singer 35 years after his death; Chile and Hawaii are both trying to get a contract for a giant telescope; A Chilean gang was busted with objects stolen from Europe; Ongoing news coverage of Peru’s ex-president Fujimori who is being held in a Chilean prison; and the widespread access of internet in Chile.
There was widespread coverage of the EU-Latin America Summit in Chile, but again the coverage was geared for Spain’s domestic audience, with the primary news being whether or not Venezuela’s Chavez had apologized to Spain’s King Juan Carlos I – or vice versa – after the Royal told the President to “shut up” at a summit last year in Chile.
When Chile is covered in the press, it is almost always in terms related to Spanish businesses that are operating in that country. Specifically, there are repeated stories related to various Spanish energy and telecommunications companies, but in general they lack depth and are not in and of themselves the types of articles that would entice investors.
There have also been recent articles about threats to Spanish companies.
Specifically, there has been negative press regarding the US businessman Douglas Tompkins (owner of Patagonia and North Face) who it is reported is buying up land in Chile. Reports in Spain claim Tompkins is trying to buy enough land to create a wildlife preserve in the south of the country – and which would run from the Andes to the sea, effectively cutting the country in two. There are concerns this could affect Spanish company Endesa which has plans to build hydroelectric dams near the project. In typical Spanish fashion of looking for extremely bizarre details, the ABC newspaper reported speculation is rife in the Chilean region that Tompkins could be planning on exporting water or even building a new promised land for some Jewish sect.
There are occasionally articles related to tourism, but these are most often related to trade publications. In general, the perception is that there are more articles on the Caribbean, Mexico and Peru than those published on Chile. One person interviewed for this report, said they were shocked that a family member was thinking of going to Chile for holidays instead of some place more “exotic.”
There is next to no coverage of Chilean imports, although there is a moderate knowledge of the quality of that country’s wines – but this is covered in select media aimed an even more select reader, which is perhaps not surprising given Spain’s own personal, and abundant, history with wine.
This lack of knowledge is also backed up by a 2006 survey by the Spanish state agency CIS that noted that of those individuals polled on their viewing news habits, only 7.8% of the respondents said they watched “A Lot” of news related to Latin America, and 49% “Quite A Bit.” The most popular items in Spain are related to news about the European Union, followed by those about the North Africa. News items regarding Latin America were the fourth most popular items (EU, North of Africa, US, and Latin America, in that order). In general, Spaniards identify more with European countries, and North Africa, although there are some indications of change. In a late 2007 CIS survey, 31% of those Spaniards polled thought that Spain should develop programs in Latin America to foment economic growth.
However, just the previous year the CIS noted that in terms of international politics, 56% of the respondents thought European Integration was extremely important, with only 8.6% showing concern about relations with Latin America.
It is interesting to note that this shift has also been accompanied with a rise in Latin American immigrants in Spain, accompanied with rising unemployment.
Amazingly, despite 85% of those polled saying they had never travelled to a Latin American country the vast majority believed the principal problem in Latin America was a lack of democracy, weak economies and corruption. Of those who had travelled to Latin America, the vast majority visited Mexico (24.5%), while only 5.7% went to Chile.
With respect to the perception of which Latin American politicians are implementing measures to further their economies, there has been recently a dramatic shift in favor of Chile. In a CIS report released May 29, 2008 (administered in Nov. 2007), on a scale of 1 to 10, Spaniards rated Chile’s Bachelet as being the most effective Latin American leader with a 4.93 ranking. The next most highly ranked Latin American leader was Brazil’s Lula with a 4.61 out of 10 ranking. Bolivia’s Morales had received a 3.42 rating, while Cuba’s Fidel Castro got a 1.82 out of 10.
While this recent survey is not exactly measuring the same criteria, it is interesting to note that of those polled in a 2006 CIS survey, 19% of them gave Brazil’s Lula high marks, followed by Bolivia’s Morales (16%). Only 6.6% of those Spaniards polled in that survey valued the job done by Chile’s Bachelet, which in relative terms was only slightly higher than the 3.7% who amazingly thought that Cuba’s Fidel Castro was doing a good job.
Despite the improvement in the perception of Chile’s government, it remains clear that country’s message is not reaching the Spanish public, but then this is a public where 35% of the population has never heard of the Latin American Summits.
- As a result of its having the jump on other Latin American countries with respect to liberalizing its markets there is a generalized perception that in Chile there is an elevated sophistication and professionalism when dealing with Chilean businessman.
- The Chilean telecommunications and software sectors are viewed as being consolidated and highly respected.
- Tourism is a definite strength with not only majestic views, but also the added benefit that it’s viewed as safe to travel to remote locations, unlike in several other Latin American countries. After all, what good is a vacation if you can’t come home to develop the photos.
- As mentioned repeatedly in this report, Chile’s economy is seen as a definite bonus, with the government fully seeking to follow a Free Market model, and entice foreign investors.
- A willingness – and business code – to allow foreign investors buy or create businesses in Chile without any type of restriction of discrimination toward foreigners.
- A favorable tax regime, which avoids double taxation with Spain. Direct tax on Companies/Societies is 17% on profits; Indirect tax of VAT 19%.
- Patent protection: Chile subscribes to strict patent protocol, including that of the Paris accord and recognizes those patents that were issued in other countries. Patents should be registered also in Chile to receive full protection.
- Common language – Spanish – and in many respects a common culture and religion. This is not to be downplayed as Spaniards are notorious for there horrible grasp of foreign languages. o The current strength of the Euro also makes investments in Latin America attractive.
- As mentioned previously, one area that will increasingly draw criticism from stakeholders and activists is in the area of distribution of wealth. In Chile the lines between those who have and those who don’t have are increasing.
- Chile’s energy network/grid has shown signs in the past (1999) of needing further investments to avoid shortfalls in production and supply.
- Chile’s energy portfolio is certainly a weak point, which while the country does have some renewable energy sources – most notably in the area of hydroelectricity – there is a deficit with respect to gas and oil, the result lending to supply shortages.
- While Chile is “an open market” there is actually tight control on the distribution channels – roughly 80% of retail distribution is handled by 20% of the distributors, which would suggest that this area needs to be liberalized.
- With respect to the above point, when introducing some consumer products distributors will demand additional support for publicity and promotions, for which the foreign companies will have to be willing to provide.
- Given the tight control on the retail supply chain and distribution at times it is viewed that certain participants hold too much power when it is time to negotiate business terms.
- While taxation is generally lower – except for alcoholic beverages (27%), there are also some barriers for the importation for motor vehicles and parts.
- There have been some reports tighter controls on press freedom. In Spain there was coverage recently of a Committee to Protect Journalist report (May 23) that Chilean photographer Víctor Salas suffered a serious eye injury on Wednesday when he was struck by a police officer as he was covering a protest outside parliament in the southwestern city of Valparaíso. Salas works for the Spanish state news agency EFE.
- While Chile’s economy is a positive, it is also showing some signs of growth slowing down, and unemployment and inflation both rising.
- For the most part Chile has avoided political financial scandals, although that has recently changed – and which oddly seems to be the product of a stuffy government process inherited from Dictator Pinochet. o Indeed, Pinochet remains a weakness in terms of branding and marketing, perhaps not helped by the ongoing leaks, trials and reports. On the other hand, Spain has something to offer in this area as it also seems to have recovered from a similar situation under Franco.
- Some Spanish businessmen said they cannot understand why there isn’t a full agreement between Chile and Mercosur, rather than just being an Associate Member.
- Given the current makeup of Chile’s energy sector – its dependence upon gas and oil, etc – this should provide the country an opportunity to invest in renewable energies, such as in solar and wind-power, areas in which Spain has several leading companies. Iberdrola, Acciona, Endesa, Gamesa, ACS amongst others are more than qualified to bring their technology and know-how to Chile.
- Chile is also diversifying into the LNG market, an area where Spanish companies are world leaders.
- Chile can be a platform to enter other countries given its vast Free Trade agreements. Specifically, foreign investors can take advantage of a Law signed Nov 23, 2002 that seeks to foment foreign investors to use Chile as base to enter other Latin American and global countries. Spanish companies and investors are especially suited to take advantage of such legislation given the cultural similarities and common language in the region.
- Chile offers growth and investment possibilities in the construction sector, especially in the area of building second homes.
- Chile continues to offer important investment possibilities in the area of tourism.
- Chile offers a stable and dynamic market that is supported by a professional manner of doing business.
- One sector that is currently undergoing spectacular growth, and which Spanish companies can bring their know-how and investments, is in the area of “green” projects, related to sustainable growth, corporate responsibility and environmental protection.
- The Chilean market is extremely competitive in terms of the relationship between price and product, which means that there is room when negotiating for value-added services or products when seeking positioning in the market and client-customer loyalty – something that Spanish companies can provide.
- The Spanish government has made it a priority to invest in science and technology, meaning there could be clear opportunities to do business in Chile given that government’s economic policies that also seek to foment investments in this sector.
- There are continued supply concerns with respect to not only electricity, but also in the area of agricultural products.
- Chile must resolve its outstanding border disputes with Peru and Bolivia.
- There does exist the threat of the influence from populist Latin American governments in Chile’s politics, most notably from Venezuela, Ecuador and Bolivia.
- Given Chile’s geography there does exist the constant threat of earthquakes.
- Environmental concerns:
- Significant threats to Chile’s freshwater and marine habitats are caused by the ever growing aquaculture industry – primarily salmon farming.
- The establishment of non-native tree plantations is considered by many to be the greatest threat to Chile’s native forests.
- The primary environmental threats to Chile are air pollution from vehicle and. industrial emissions, water pollution from untreated industrial sewage.
With respect to what most positively affects a country’s perception in Spain it must first be stated that Spain is very nationalistic. There is a love-hate relationship – some would say envy – with various countries based on historical incidents.
In addition, Spaniards love rankings and continually are publishing articles to show that they are in the vanguard. This at times is extreme, to the point where there have been articles comparing how many cigarette butts, or trees – or worse – can be found on the streets of various European capitals.
More specifically, Spaniards might admit that certain products from the U.S. are top-quality, but they won’t let that sway them from still dredging up the Spanish-American War of 1898 and complaining of the loss of territories. Americans are consistently portrayed as being naïve and religious fanatics, while at the same time being hypocrites. It is a common game in Spain among American ex-pats to look for the “strange or bizarre American news story” that Spanish media routinely publish.
In the same way, there has been extensive news coverage this year to celebrate the 1808 war again France – which while it freed Spain from the French was also the beginning of its decline in influence in Latin America. A weakened Spain subsequently found itself facing Wars of Independence in Venezuela and Argentina.
All to say, that Spain – and Spaniards – have a long memory, and some would argue an inferiority complex.
Spaniards, besides being nationalistic, are also idealists. Countries with the most positive image perceptions in Spain have a strong record in Human Rights and Democratic ideals, fortified by solid economic models. In this respect of equal importance are countries that can contribute in the areas of Culture and Art, and High Technology. Spaniards are big spenders who love the latest high-tech gadget, and in that vein luxury goods.
With this in mind, it is interesting that according to a recent study by BBC, only 31% of Spaniards consider it a positive factor that China is an economic powerhouse. Indeed, according to that study out of all European countries it is Spain that holds the distinction of having the most negative image of China.
On the backdrop of the above information, the typical Spaniard tends to associate his spending by what is popular and trendy, rather than as being related to a specific country.
By Robert Steven Duncan